Wednesday, October 31, 2018

PIG HEART VALVES and Potential Iatrogenic Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE Prion Disease in Humans, what if?

Subject: PIG HEART VALVES

Did you know that porcine heart valves are commonly used in human patients who require replacement valves? 

There is also hope that one day pigs could provide a step in helping to treat or to cure diabetes because of the similarities between the human and porcine pancreas. 






O3 Experimental studies on prion transmission barrier and TSE pathogenesis in large animals 

Rosa Bolea(1), Acín C(1)Marín B(1), Hedman C(1), Raksa H(1), Barrio T(1), Otero A(1), LópezPérez O(1), Monleón E(1),Martín-Burriel(1), Monzón M(1), Garza MC(1), Filali H(1),Pitarch JL(1), Garcés M(1), Betancor M(1), GuijarroIM(1), GarcíaM(1), Moreno B(1),Vargas A(1), Vidal E(2), Pumarola M(2), Castilla J(3), Andréoletti O(4), Espinosa JC(5), Torres JM(5), Badiola JJ(1). 

1Centro de Investigación en Encefalopatías y Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes, VeterinaryFaculty, Universidad de Zaragoza; Zaragoza,Spain.2 RTA, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB) 3 4 INRA, ÉcoleVétérinaire, Toulouse, France.5CIC bioGUNE, Prion researchlab, Derio, Spain CISA- INIA, Valdeolmos, Madrid 28130, Spain. 

Experimental transmission of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE) has been understood and related with several factors that could modify the natural development of these diseases. In fact, the behaviour of the natural disease does not match exactly in each animal, being modified by parameters such as the age at infection, the genotype, the breed or the causative strain. Moreover, different TSE strains can target different animal species or tissues, what complicate the prediction of its transmissibility when is tested in a different species of the origin source. The aim of the experimental studies in large animals is to homogenize all those factors, trying to minimize as much as possible variations between individuals. These effects can be flattened by experimental transmission in mice, in which a specific strain can be selected after several passages. With this objective, several experimental studies in large animals have been developed by the presenter research team. 

Classical scrapie agent has been inoculated in cow, with the aim of demonstrate the resistance or susceptibility of this species to the first well known TSE; Atypical scrapie has been inoculated in sheep (using several routes of infection), cow and pig, with the objective of evaluating the potential pathogenicity of this strain; Classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) has been inoculated in goats aiming to demonstrate if the genetic background of this species could protect against this strain; goat BSE and sheep BSE have been inoculated in goats and pigs respectively to evaluate the effect of species barrier; and finally atypical BSE has been inoculated in cattle to assess the transmissibility properties of this newly introduced strain. 

Once the experiments have been carried out on large animal species, a collection of samples from animals studied were inoculated in different types of tg mice overexpressing PrPcin order to study the infectivity of the tissues, and also were studied using PMCA. 

In summary, the parameters that have been controlled are the species, the strain, the route of inoculation, the time at infection, the genotype, the age, and the environmental conditions. 

To date, 

***> eleven of the atypical scrapie intracerebrally inoculated sheep have succumbed to atypical scrapie disease; 

***> six pigs to sheep BSE; 

***> one cow to classical scrapie; 

***> nine goats to goat BSE and 

***> five goats to classical BSE. 

***> PrPSC has been demonstrated in all cases by immunohistochemistry and western blot. 


=====> PRION CONFERENCE 2018



SCRAPIE AND CWD HAS NOW BEEN FOUND TO TRANSMIT TO PIGS BY ORAL ROUTE...TSS


***> However, at 51 months of incubation or greater, 5 animals were positive by one or more diagnostic methods. Furthermore, positive bioassay results were obtained from all inoculated groups (oral and intracranial; market weight and end of study) suggesting that swine are potential hosts for the agent of scrapie. <***



>*** Although the current U.S. feed ban is based on keeping tissues from TSE infected cattle from contaminating animal feed, swine rations in the U.S. could contain animal derived components including materials from scrapie infected sheep and goats. These results indicating the susceptibility of pigs to sheep scrapie, coupled with the limitations of the current feed ban, indicates that a revision of the feed ban may be necessary to protect swine production and potentially human health. <***

40,000 human heart valves a year from BSE herds

Sun, 3 Sep 2000.  Unpublished Inquiry documents obtained by CJD activist Terry S. Singeltary Sr. of Bacliff, Texas

Opinion (webmaster): Below are some shocking documents. Here is a British company preparing 40,000 heart valves a year from bovine pericardium, primarily for export, and they are not required to source this material from BSE-free herds even in peak epidemic years. It is amazing to watch health "authorities" grovelling on their bellies to wring petty concessions from middle management at obscure little companies. The main worry is not the practise of using 800 potentially infected cows a week for human heart transplant material but that the press or recipients will get wind of it, hurting business.

BSE wasn't the problem, it was awkward queries from importing countries like the US. The cows are stunned using brain penetration -- can't do anything about the chunks of bovine brain blasted into the circulatory system, it's the norm. Can't use younger lower-risk animals either, patch would not be big enough. It is fascinating to see the British government worrying about, but doing nothing, with pigs with BSE 10 years ago.

While scrapie was long used as an excuse for continuing with human use of BSE-tainted material, little sheep material was used medically. Bovine transplants, vaccines, insulin doeses, etc. are far more dangerous than dietary material as injections, and are done on a very wide scale. So scrapie was never a valid analogy to BSE, as MAFF knew full well.

The British government deferred to the manufacturer's rep for an opinion on how contaminated pericardium might be, just as this appeared showing that this tissue is extremely dangerous:

CJD in a patient who received homograft [was it really?] tissue for tympanic membrane 

closure.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 1990;247(4):199-201



Tange RA, Troost D, Limburg M




We report the case history of a 54-year-old man who developed a fatal neurological disorder 4 years after a successful tympanoplasty with homograft pericardium...



COMMERCIAL IN CONFIDENCE



snip...see full text;


http://www.mad-cow.org/00/sep00_news.html#hhh




Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a patient who had bovine bioprosthetic valve implantation
Indian J Ophthalmol. 2016 Oct; 64(10): 767–769. doi: [10.4103/0301-4738.195003] PMCID: PMC5168920 PMID: 27905341 
Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease in a patient who had bovine bioprosthetic valve implantation 
Jehard Hashoul, Waleed Saliba,1 Irina Bloch,2 and Haneen Jabaly-Habib 
Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer 
Abstract 
Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by rapidly progressing dementia, general neurologic deterioration, and death. When the leading symptoms are visual disturbances, it is termed as the Heidenhain variant of CJD (HvCJD). CJD was reported following prion-contaminated pericardium transplants but never after bovine bioprosthetic cardiac valve. In this case report, we describe HvCJD in a patient who had a bovine bioprosthetic cardiac valve implant. An 82-year-old-woman was referred to neuro-ophthalmology clinic for unexplained visual loss that started 1 month previously. Medical history included aortic valve replacement with bovine bioprosthetic valve. On examination, best-corrected visual acuity was 20/120 in the right eye and 20/200 in the left eye; otherwise, the eye examination was normal. Humphrey visual fields revealed complete right homonymous hemianopsia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated nonspecific white matter changes. A week later, she was hospitalized due to memory impairment; repeated MRI and total body computed tomography scan showed no significant findings. 
Electroencephalography recordings and extremely elevated cerebrospinal fluid tau protein were compatible with CJD. The patient died 3 weeks later; autopsy was not performed. The patient had HvCJD. Ophthalmologists being first to see these patients should be aware of this diagnosis. Contaminated bovine bioprosthetic valve might be another source for prion disease. Further research is required to establish this issue.
Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) is the most common human prion disease with an incidence of 1 case per 1 million populations per year; it is a rare neurodegenerative disease associated with severe neuronal loss, spongiform changes, and accumulation of the abnormal prion protein. About 85% of CJD cases are sporadic CJD (sCJD), 5%–15% are familial CJD, and <1 3.9="" 30="" 70="" a="" about="" accounts="" advanced="" age="" and="" any="" are="" associated="" at="" been="" cases.="" cases="" cjd.="" cjd="" classic="" clinical="" cognitive="" decline="" dementia="" duration="" early-prominent="" even="" few="" for="" have="" heidenhain="" iatrogenic="" illness="" in="" includes="" is="" isolated="" it="" may="" mean="" months="" mv1="" myoclonic="" myoclonus="" of="" onset="" persist="" phenotype="" phenotypes="" precede="" presents="" progressive="" rapidly="" reported="" scjd="" severe="" short="" signs="" six="" span="" symptoms="" termed="" the="" variant.="" variant="" visual="" weeks="" when="" which="" with="" without="">
Go to: Case Report An 82-year-old Jewish woman, Ukrainian descendant, was referred to neuro-ophthalmology clinic for unexplained progressive visual loss over the past month with a significant deterioration in the last few days. The patients and her son denied any behavioral change or memory impairment at this point.
Medical history included hypertension and aortic valve replacement with bovine 19 mm bioprosthetic valve, performed 5 years before her current presentation.
On examination, her best-corrected visual acuity was 20/120 in the right eye and 20/200 in the left eye, pupillary reactions and eye movement were normal, and applanation tonometry was 11/11; after dilating the pupils, both eyes revealed nonsignificant cataract, normal optic disc and retina. Humphrey visual fields revealed complete right homonymous hemianopsia with bilateral macular involvement [Fig. 1]. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated diffuse atrophic and nonspecific white matter changes along with small cystic lesions and anatomical distortion at the basal ganglia level, no cortical pathology [Fig. 2].
One week later, the patient was admitted to the hospital due to memory impairment; repeated complete blood count, chemistry and rheumatologic panel were within normal limits. Electroencephalography (EEG) revealed diffuse slowing and periodic sharp wave discharges along with triphasic wave complexes [Fig. 3]; repeated brain MRI and total body computed tomography showed no significant changes compared to previous studies; cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed extremely elevated tau protein >1200 pg/ml compatible with CJD.
During her hospitalization, the patient developed rapid loss of short and long memory, disorientation, incontinence, and brisk reflexes. She was discharged home according to her family request and died 3 weeks later. Unfortunately, autopsy was not performed. 
Discussion
Our patient presented with progressive visual decline over 5 weeks, followed by rapidly progressive dementia and extrapyramidal tract dysfunction. The patient died 2.5 months after her presenting symptoms. According to the World Health Organization, the definite diagnosis of CJD is made by tissue diagnosis not performed in our patient.[2] Considering the disease course, rapidly progressive dementia (Human-to-human transmission of CJD was first reported in 1974 in a 55-year-old woman who developed symptoms 18 months after corneal transplantation from a donor who died of the disease. CJD transmission had been also reported following cadaveric dural graft transplants, radiographic embolization procedures with dura mater, liver transplants, administration of cadaveric human pituitary hormones, and by contaminated neurosurgical instruments. In 1989, a 54-year-old patient who received homograft pericardium for tympanic membrane closure 4 years earlier developed CJD.[3]
Although the definite pathogenesis is unknown, the primary component associated with the infection of CJD is an isoform of a normal host membrane glycoprotein called cellular prion protein (PrPC). The normal prion protein PrPC is protease sensitive, soluble and has a high α-helix content.[4] PrPC can undergo conversion into a conformationally altered isoform (scrapie prion protein [PrPSc]) widely believed to be the pathogenic agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The PrPSc is protease-resistant, insoluble, forms of amyloid fibrils and has high β-sheet content.[5]
The tissue-specific expression of PrPC is crucial considering that cells expressing high levels of PrPC bear a risk for conversion and accumulation of PrPSc. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of PrPC revealed that widespread tissue expression pattern of PrPC in bovine somatic tissues includes heart and myocardium;[6] it was found also in sheep,[7] hamster, and other nonhuman primates. Furthermore, expression of PrPSc was demonstrated in the hearts of transgenic mice as amyloid deposits that led to myocardial stiffness and cardiac disease.[8] PrPSc has been reported in the heart tissue of one sCJD patient.[9]
Prions exhibit an unusual resistance to conventional disinfection and sterilization methods; the procedures for sterilization of prion-contaminated medical instruments have been controversial for many years. Guidelines for sterilization that appear to be effective have been reported.[10] We presume that all of these guidelines may dismantle any biological tissue.
According to the manufacturer, our patient bioprosthetic aortic valve leaflets were made of bovine pericardium, and no information of bovine PrPSc screening of the pericardium leaflets was available.
We are unable to offer definite proof of the transmission of CJD by the bovine pericardium-made bioprosthetic aortic valve since autopsy was not performed. Still, the interval between the valve replacement surgery and the symptoms of the disease suggests that the pericardium was the conceivable vehicle for the transmission of the patient with CJD.
Conclusion
The patient's diagnosis was probable Heidenhain variant of CJD (HvCJD), suspected to be transmitted by the bovine valve transplantation never reported before. Bovine bioprosthetic valve made of pericardium might be another source for prion disease. Although this is a rare disease, ophthalmologists should be aware of the diagnosis being first to see the HvCJD of the CJD patients. Thorough medical history and good clinical examination and patients’ follow-up may lead to the correct investigation and diagnosis. Further research is required to establish this issue.
Financial support and sponsorship Nil.
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
Keywords: Bovine bioprosthetic cardiac valve, Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, prion, unexplained visual loss



BSE offals used in cosmetics, toiletry and perfume industry Sun, 3 Sep 2000. 

Unpublished Inquiry documents obtained by CJD activist Terry S. Singeltary Sr. of Bacliff, Texas

http://www.mad-cow.org/00/sep00_news.html#bbb


back then, i was getting things via Her Majesty Air Mail FOIA request, now they are online, if you can keep up with the different
URL changes over the years...terry


https://web.archive.org/web/20090505223320/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/02/01014001.pdf






https://web.archive.org/web/20090506062028/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1995/05/11001001.pdf






http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20080102182541/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/01/29019001.pdf






http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20080103004803/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1989/12/12008001.pdf






https://web.archive.org/web/20090506011945/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/01/26020001.pdf



7 OF 10 LITTLE PIGGIES WENT ON TO DEVELOP BSE;

1: J Comp Pathol. 2000 Feb-Apr; 122(2-3): 131-43. Related Articles,

The neuropathology of experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the pig. 

Ryder SJ, Hawkins SA, Dawson M, Wells GA.

Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Woodham Lane, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK. 

In an experimental study of the transmissibility of BSE to the pig, seven of 10 pigs, infected at 1-2 weeks of age by 
multiple-route parenteral inoculation with a homogenate of bovine brain from natural BSE cases developed lesions typical of 
spongiform encephalopathy. The lesions consisted principally of severe neuropil vacuolation affecting most areas of the brain, 
but mainly the forebrain. In addition, some vacuolar change was identified in the rostral colliculi and hypothalamic areas of 
normal control pigs. PrP accumulations were detected immunocytochemically in the brains of BSE-infected animals. PrP 
accumulation was sparse in many areas and its density was not obviously related to the degree of vacuolation. The patterns 
of PrP immunolabelling in control pigs differed strikingly from those in the infected animals.

PMID: 10684682 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?holding=npg&cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=10684682&dopt=Abstract





http://madporcinedisease.blogspot.com/2015/07/porcine-prion-protein-amyloid-or-mad.html







----Original Message-----

From: Terry Singeltary <flounder9@verizon.net
To: bse-l l@lists.aegee.org
>

Cc: cjdvoice <cjdvoice@yahoogroups..com>; bloodcjd <bloodcjd@yahoogroups.com>

Sent: Fri, Apr 20, 2018 3:54 pm
Subject: Scrapie Transmits To Pigs By Oral Route, what about the terribly flawed USA tse prion feed ban?


Research Project: Pathobiology, Genetics, and Detection of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies


2017 Annual Report

1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
Objective 1: Investigate the mechanisms of protein misfolding in prion disease, including the genetic determinants of misfolding of the prion protein and the environmental influences on protein misfolding as it relates to prion diseases. Subobjective 1.A: Investigate the differences in the unfolded state of wild-type and disease associated prion proteins to better understand the mechanism of misfolding in genetic prion disease. Subobjective 1.B: Investigate the influence of metal ions on the misfolding of the prion protein in vitro to determine if environmental exposure to metal ions may alter disease progression. Objective 2: Investigate the pathobiology of prion strains in natural hosts, including the influence of prion source genotype on interspecies transmission and the pathobiology of atypical transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Subobjective 2.A: Investigate the pathobiology of atypical TSEs. Subobjective 2.B: Investigate the influence of prion source genotype on interspecies transmission. Objective 3: Investigate sampling methodologies for antemortem detection of prion disease, including the utility of blood sampling as a means to assess prion disease status of affected animals and the utility of environmental sampling for monitoring herd prion disease status. Subobjective 3.A: Investigate the utility of blood sampling as a means to assess prion disease status of affected animals. Subobjective 3.B: Investigate the utility of environmental sampling for monitoring herd prion disease status.

1b. Approach (from AD-416):
The studies will focus on three animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agents found in the United States: bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE); scrapie of sheep and goats; and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk, and moose. The research will address sites of protein folding and misfolding as it relates to prion disease, accumulation of misfolded protein in the host, routes of infection, and ante mortem diagnostics with an emphasis on controlled conditions and natural routes of infection. Techniques used will include spectroscopic monitoring of protein folding/misfolding, clinical exams, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and biochemical analysis of proteins. The enhanced knowledge gained from this work will help understand the underlying mechanisms of prion disease and mitigate the potential for unrecognized epidemic expansions of these diseases in populations of animals that could either directly or indirectly affect food animals.

3. Progress Report:
All 8 project plan milestones for FY17 were fully met. Research efforts directed toward meeting objective 1 of our project plan center around the production of recombinant prion protein from either bacteria or mammalian tissue culture systems and collection of thermodynamic data on the folding of the recombinant prion protein produced. Both bacterial and mammalian expression systems have been established. Thermodynamic data addressing the denatured state of wild-type and a disease associated variant of bovine prion protein has been collected and a manuscript is in preparation. In research pertaining to objective 2, all studies have been initiated and animals are under observation for the development of clinical signs. The animal studies for this objective are long term and will continue until onset of clinical signs. In vitro studies planned in parallel to the animals studies have similarly been initiated and are ongoing. Objective 3 of the project plan focuses on the detection of disease associated prion protein in body fluids and feces collected from a time course study of chronic wasting disease inoculated animals. At this time samples are being collected as planned and methods for analysis are under development.

4. Accomplishments
1. Showed that swine are potential hosts for the scrapie agent. A naturally occurring prion disease has not been recognized in swine, but the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy does transmit to swine by experimental routes. Swine are thought to have a robust species barrier when exposed to the naturally occurring prion diseases of other species, but the susceptibility of swine to the agent of sheep scrapie has not been thoroughly tested. ARS researchers at Ames, Iowa conducted this experiment to test the susceptibility of swine to U.S. scrapie isolates by intracranial and oral inoculation. Necropsies were done on a subset of animals at approximately 6 months post inoculation (PI): the time the pigs were expected to reach market weight. Remaining pigs were maintained and monitored for clinical signs of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) until study termination at 80 months PI or when removed due to intercurrent disease. Brain samples were examined by multiple diagnostic approaches, and for a subset of pigs in each inoculation group, bioassay in mice expressing porcine prion protein. At 6 months PI, no evidence of scrapie infection was noted by any diagnostic method. However, at 51 months of incubation or greater, 5 animals were positive by one or more diagnostic methods. Furthermore, positive bioassay results were obtained from all inoculated groups (oral and intracranial; market weight and end of study) suggesting that swine are potential hosts for the agent of scrapie. Although the current U.S. feed ban is based on keeping tissues from TSE infected cattle from contaminating animal feed, swine rations in the U.S. could contain animal derived components including materials from scrapie infected sheep and goats. These results indicating the susceptibility of pigs to sheep scrapie, coupled with the limitations of the current feed ban, indicates that a revision of the feed ban may be necessary to protect swine production and potentially human health.
2. Determined that pigs naturally exposed to chronic wasting disease (CWD) may act as a reservoir of CWD infectivity. Chronic wasting disease is a naturally occurring, fatal, neurodegenerative disease of cervids. The potential for swine to serve as a host for the agent of CWD disease is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of swine to the CWD agent following experimental oral or intracranial inoculation. Pigs were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: intracranially inoculated; orally inoculated; or non-inoculated. At market weight age, half of the pigs in each group were tested ('market weight' groups). The remaining pigs ('aged' groups) were allowed to incubate for up to 73 months post inoculation (MPI). Tissues collected at necropsy were examined for disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) by multiple diagnostic methods. Brain samples from selected pigs were bioassayed in mice expressing porcine prion protein. Some pigs from each inoculated group were positive by one or more tests.. Bioassay was positive in 4 out of 5 pigs assayed. Although only small amounts of PrPSc were detected using sensitive methods, this study demonstrates that pigs can serve as hosts for CWD. Detection of infectivity in orally inoculated pigs using mouse bioassay raises the possibility that naturally exposed pigs could act as a reservoir of CWD infectivity. Currently, swine rations in the U.S. could contain animal derived components including materials from deer or elk. In addition, feral swine could be exposed to infected carcasses in areas where CWD is present in wildlife populations. The current feed ban in the U.S. is based exclusively on keeping tissues from TSE infected cattle from entering animal feeds. These results indicating the susceptibility of pigs to CWD, coupled with the limitations of the current feed ban, indicates that a revision of the feed ban may be necessary to protect swine production and potentially human health.
3. Developed a method for amplification and discrimination of the 3 forms of BSE in cattle. The prion protein (PrP) is a protein that is the causative agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The disease process involves conversion of the normal cellular PrP to a pathogenic misfolded conformation. This conversion process can be recreated in the lab using a misfolding amplification process known as real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC). RT-QuIC allows the detection of minute amounts of the abnormal infectious form of the prion protein by inducing misfolding in a supplied substrate. Although RT-QuIC has been successfully used to detect pathogenic PrP with substrates from a variety of host species, prior to this work bovine prion protein had not been proven for its practical uses for RT-QuIC. We demonstrated that prions from transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and BSE-infected cattle can be detected with using bovine prion proteins with RT-QuIC, and developed an RT-QuIC based approach to discriminate different forms of BSE. This rapid and robust method, both to detect and discriminate BSE types, is of importance as the economic implications for different types of BSE vary greatly.
Moore, S., Kunkle, R., Greenlee, M., Nicholson, E., Richt, J., Hamir, A., Waters, W., Greenlee, J. 2016. Horizontal transmission of chronic wasting disease in reindeer. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 22(12):2142-2145. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160635.
Moore, S.J., West Greenlee, M.H., Smith, J.D., Vrentas, C.E., Nicholson, E.M., Greenlee, J.J. 2016. A comparison of classical and H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy associated with E211K prion protein polymorphism in wild type and EK211 cattle following intracranial inoculation. Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 3:78.
Greenlee, J.J., Kunkle, R.A., Smith, J.D., West Greenlee, M.H. 2016. Scrapie in swine: a diagnostic challenge. Food Safety. 4(4):110-114.
Kondru, N., Manne, S., Greenlee, J., West Greenlee, H., Anantharam, V., Halbur, P., Kanthasamy, A., Kanthasamy, A. 2017. Integrated organotypic slice cultures and RT-QuIC (OSCAR) assay: implications for translational discovery in protein misfolding diseases. Scientific Reports. 7:43155. doi:10.1038/srep43155.
Mammadova, N., Ghaisas, S., Zenitsky, G., Sakaguchi, D.S., Kanthasamy, A.G., Greenlee, J.J., West Greenlee, M.H. 2017. Lasting retinal injury in a mouse model of blast-induced trauma. American Journal of Pathology. 187(7):1459-1472. doi:10.1016/j.ajpath.2017.03.005.




***> However, at 51 months of incubation or greater, 5 animals were positive by one or more diagnostic methods. Furthermore, positive bioassay results were obtained from all inoculated groups (oral and intracranial; market weight and end of study) suggesting that swine are potential hosts for the agent of scrapie. <***



>*** Although the current U.S. feed ban is based on keeping tissues from TSE infected cattle from contaminating animal feed, swine rations in the U.S. could contain animal derived components including materials from scrapie infected sheep and goats. These results indicating the susceptibility of pigs to sheep scrapie, coupled with the limitations of the current feed ban, indicates that a revision of the feed ban may be necessary to protect swine production and potentially human health. <***


THE Aug. 1997 mad cow feed ban was/is a joke, BSE surveillance also was proven to be terribly flawed, along with BSE testing, shown to be flawed as well. 

ALSO, WHAT ABOUT CWD TRANSMITTING TO PIGS AS WELL, AND MAD CAMEL DISEASE NOW, BIG OUTBREAK, NOT SPONTANEOUS, WHAT ABOUT THAT, and the feed ban concern there as well? AND what about Scrapie transmission to the Macaque recently. seems the tse prion poker continue to goes up. very worrying...terry

please see these facts below...thank you///




***> CWD TO PIGS <***


Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES

Location: Virus and Prion Research

Title: Disease-associated prion protein detected in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the agent of chronic wasting disease

Author item Moore, Sarah item Kunkle, Robert item Kondru, Naveen item Manne, Sireesha item Smith, Jodi item Kanthasamy, Anumantha item West Greenlee, M item Greenlee, Justin

Submitted to: Prion Publication Type: Abstract Only Publication Acceptance Date: 3/15/2017 Publication Date: N/A Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Aims: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a naturally-occurring, fatal neurodegenerative disease of cervids. We previously demonstrated that disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) can be detected in the brain and retina from pigs challenged intracranially or orally with the CWD agent. In that study, neurological signs consistent with prion disease were observed only in one pig: an intracranially challenged pig that was euthanized at 64 months post-challenge. The purpose of this study was to use an antigen-capture immunoassay (EIA) and real-time quaking-induced conversion (QuIC) to determine whether PrPSc is present in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the CWD agent.

Methods: At two months of age, crossbred pigs were challenged by the intracranial route (n=20), oral route (n=19), or were left unchallenged (n=9). At approximately 6 months of age, the time at which commercial pigs reach market weight, half of the pigs in each group were culled (<6 challenge="" groups="" month="" pigs="" remaining="" the="">6 month challenge groups) were allowed to incubate for up to 73 months post challenge (mpc). The retropharyngeal lymph node (RPLN) was screened for the presence of PrPSc by EIA and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The RPLN, palatine tonsil, and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) from 6-7 pigs per challenge group were also tested using EIA and QuIC.

Results: PrPSc was not detected by EIA and IHC in any RPLNs. All tonsils and MLNs were negative by IHC, though the MLN from one pig in the oral <6 5="" 6="" at="" by="" detected="" eia.="" examined="" group="" in="" intracranial="" least="" lymphoid="" month="" months="" of="" one="" pigs="" positive="" prpsc="" quic="" the="" tissues="" was="">6 months group, 5/6 pigs in the oral <6 4="" and="" group="" months="" oral="">6 months group. Overall, the MLN was positive in 14/19 (74%) of samples examined, the RPLN in 8/18 (44%), and the tonsil in 10/25 (40%). Conclusions:

This study demonstrates that PrPSc accumulates in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged intracranially or orally with the CWD agent, and can be detected as early as 4 months after challenge.

CWD-infected pigs rarely develop clinical disease and if they do, they do so after a long incubation period. This raises the possibility that CWD-infected pigs could shed prions into their environment long before they develop clinical disease.

Furthermore, lymphoid tissues from CWD-infected pigs could present a potential source of CWD infectivity in the animal and human food chains.



CONFIDENTIAL


Subject: CONFIDENTIAL IN CONFIDENCE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY OF PIGS



*** ''but feeding of other ruminant protein, including scrapie-infected sheep, can continue to pigs.''


CONFIDENTIAL SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY OF PIGS


CONFIDENTIAL


Ref: Pigs10i


IN CONFIDENCE


Dr. Metters


From Dr. H Pickles Med ISD/3


Date 10 September 1990


Copy: Dr G Jones Mr D Hagger Mr T Murray (o/r) Dr D Harper Dr Richardson Mrs Shersby


SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY OF PIGS


1. There has been a preliminary meeting of the Tyrrell committee today to discuss the significance of the pig experiment in the light of other evidence, for example on feline spongiform encephalopathy.


2. The preliminary conclusions were:


we now know pigs are capable of expressing spongiform encephalopathy. Previously this had been doubted. 
the clinical picture in pigs exposed to agent by these doses/routes is fairly distinctive and unlikely to have gone unrecognised.


even so improved monitoring/surveillance of neurological disease in older pigs should be considered. 
feeding of the "specified offal" (ie nervous/lymphoid tissue from cattle) should no longer be permitted, to pigs or to any other species.


*** but feeding of other ruminant protein, including scrapie-infected sheep, can continue to pigs. 
if one natural field case of spongiform encephalopathy were described in a pig, we would need a ban on offal from for human consumption.


we cannot rule out the possibility that unrecognised subclinical spongiform encephalopathy could be present in British pigs though there is no evidence for this: only with parenteral/implantable pharmaceuticals/devices is the theoretical risk to humans of sufficient concern to consider any action.


90/9.10/7.1


whilst any such action on pharmaceuticals/devices is for others to decide, this group (which includes 4 key members of the CSM group) suggests non-UK sources should now be used, at least for "high risk" pharmaceuticals and devices (ie for those from nervous or RE System)


3. The full committee will meet on the 19th to confirm these conclusions, to review experimental protocols of transmission experiments, to reconsider the cat position in the light of additional cases and to consider scrapie in sheep and goats. In view of Mr Gummer's earlier commitments, we assume he willI want to go public on the pig soon after, so the Tyrrell committee will also prepare a brief written statement.


4. You may want to consider with the MCA and the Medical Device Agency what preparatory action is appropriate in anticipation of the formal advice from the Tyrrell group. The CSM subgroup not due to meet until the 31 October.


Hilary Pickles Room 414 Eileen House Ext: 22832




EXPERIMENTAL PORCINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY

While this clearly is a cause for concern we should not jump to the conclusion that this means that pigs will necessarily be infected by bone and meat meal fed by the oral route as is the case with cattle. ...



we cannot rule out the possibility that unrecognised subclinical spongiform encephalopathy could be present in British pigs though there is no evidence for this: only with parenteral/implantable pharmaceuticals/devices is the theoretical risk to humans of sufficient concern to consider any action.


Our records show that while some use is made of porcine materials in medicinal products, the only products which would appear to be in a hypothetically ''higher risk'' area are the adrenocorticotrophic hormone for which the source material comes from outside the United Kingdom, namely America China Sweden France and Germany. The products are manufactured by Ferring and Armour. A further product, ''Zenoderm Corium implant'' manufactured by Ethicon, makes use of porcine skin - which is not considered to be a ''high risk'' tissue, but one of its uses is described in the data sheet as ''in dural replacement''. This product is sourced from the United Kingdom.....


snip...see much more here ;

WEDNESDAY, APRIL 05, 2017

Disease-associated prion protein detected in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the agent of chronic wasting disease


WEDNESDAY, APRIL 05, 2017

*** Disease-associated prion protein detected in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the agent of chronic wasting disease ***


FRIDAY, APRIL 20, 2018 

Scrapie Transmits To Pigs By Oral Route, what about the terribly flawed USA tse prion feed ban?


WEDNESDAY, JULY 11, 2018 

CONFIDENTIAL IN CONFIDENCE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY OF PIGS FDA EMERGENCY REQUEST FOR RULE CHANGE USA Section 21 C.F.R. 589.2000


TUESDAY, JULY 10, 2018

CONFIDENTIAL IN CONFIDENCE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY OF PIGS

*** ''but feeding of other ruminant protein, including scrapie-infected sheep, can continue to pigs.''

CONFIDENTIAL SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY OF PIGS

Porcine prion protein amyloid 

Per Hammarstr€om and Sofie Nystr€om* IFM-Department of Chemistry; Link€oping University; Link€oping, Sweden
ABSTRACT.
Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features.
Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions.
KEYWORDS. prion, pig, amyloid fibril, misfolding, transmissibility, seeding, TSE, prion strain, strain adaptation
snip...
What about pigs?
In several recent papers which in our view have not received sufficient attention the notion of prion resistant pigs was challenged by generation of transgenic mice with knocked out endogenous PrP and overexpressed PoPrP. Different lines of tgPoPrP mouse were proven to be susceptible to clinical disease triggered by a variety of prion strains, suggesting that the surrogate host species (mouse) and prion strain are more important than what PrP sequence it expresses for neurotoxicity to commence. In more detail, Torres and colleagues experimentally subjected transgenic mouse lines expressing porcine PrP to a number of different TSE isolates.24-26 Their studies demonstrate that prion infection is strain specific when porcine PrP is overexpressed (4x) and used as in vivo substrate. PoTg001 mice inoculated with classical scrapie, regardless of donor genotype, resisted prion disease both at first and second passage (Fig. 3b). On the other hand, Nor98 scrapie (Atypical scrapie) as well as BSE from both cattle and BoTg mouse model resulted in clinical disease in the PoTg001 mice. However, in the first generation, disease progression was slow. Incubation time until death was as long as 600 d and the hit rate was low. This indicates that disease has barely developed by the time the mice reach their natural life span limit which in this study was set to 650 d Already in the second passage the hit rate was 100 % and the incubation time was cut in half (Fig. 3b). No further shortening of incubation time was observed upon third passage. This shows that PoPrP is capable of forming infectious and neurotoxic prions in vivo if triggered by a compatible prion strain and if given enough time to develop. Both BSE and Nor98 rapidly adapts to the PoPrP host sequence, resulting in higher penetrance as well as in markedly shorter life span already in the second passage, well within the limits of normal life span for a mouse.
There are several crucial variables which impact the susceptibility of prion diseases and transmission studies.27 PrP sequence of host, PrP sequence of prion, prion strain, prion dosage, PrP expression level of host, host genetic background, route of transmission and neuroinvasiveness if peripherally infected.28 Importantly the PrP expression level corresponds to the rate of prion disease onset.1 This likely reflects 2 converging variables: a) PrP as a substrate to the prion misfolding reaction i.e. selfcatalyzed conversion and b) PrP as a mediator of neurotoxicity through interactions with misfolded PrP within prions.
The non-homologous recPrPs presented here and in,12 easily adapt to each other and form amyloid fibrils in accordance with what is seen in vivo when inoculum composed of BoPrP used to challenge mice expressing PoPrP (Fig. 3b).24-26 A review of the literature showed that BSE strains have a high degree of penetrance in both experimental and accidental transmission. Over 50% of the species reported to be susceptible to prion disease were infected by a BSE strain.19 Recent data form our lab shows that the promiscuity of BoPrP fibrils holds true also in the case of recombinant in vitro experiments. When cross-seeding human, bovine, porcine, feline and canine PrPs with any of the other, the recBoPrP seed outcompetes the other seeds in all instances except when the HuPrP acted as substrate (Data not shown). In this case recPoPrP fibrils have the highest seeding efficiency (Fig. 1). These findings in combination with the Torres experiments,24-26 implicate that a PoPrP substrate in vivo (in pigs) could adapt to an amyloidogenic prion strain of bovine or ovine prion disease and hence replicate in the new host.
For adaptation of experimental strains through multiple passages, donors are selected based on neurotoxicity (that is on TSE disease phenotype) not on basis of amyloid fibril formation. Hence the traits of transmissible amyloidotypic prion strains may be largely unexplored if these strains require more time to transform to neurotoxic strains e.g. as proposed by Baskakov’s model of deformed templating.8 There is experimental evidence for BSE transmission into pig via parenteral routes.16 with an incubation period of 2–3 years, well within what is to be considered normal lifespan. For a breeding sow in industrial scale pig farming that is 3–5 y (Bojne Andersson, personal communication).29,30 In small scale and hobby farming both sows and boars may be kept significantly longer. Collinge and Clarke.31 describe how prion titers reach transmissibility levels well before the prion burden is high enough to be neurotoxic and cause clinical disease. It is known that prion strains need time and serial passages to adapt. Knowing that pigs in modern farming are rarely kept for enough time for clinical signs to emerge in prion infected pigs it is important to be vigilant if there is a sporadic porcine spongiform encephalopathy (PSE) as has been seen in cattle (BASE) and sheep (Nor98). Hypothetically such a sporadic and then infectious event could further adapt and over a few generations have reached the point where clinical PSE is established within the time frame where pigs are being slaughtered for human consumption (Fig. 4).
FIGURE 4. Potential prion strain adaptation in pig. The red horizontal gradient indicates the hietherto unkown prion toxicity tolerance threshold for pigs, the blue vertical line indicates normal slaughter age for industrial pig farming, the green vertical line indicates the normal lifespan of a breeding sow in industrial scale pig farming, orange areas indicate window of neurotoxic prions before onset of clinical disease (dark orange indicates subclinical BSE as reported by Wells et al,16 pale orange indicate hypothetic outcome of PSE and strain adaptation. On the outmost right a potential subclinical sporadic PSE.
USE OF MATERIALS DERIVED FROM PIG IN VIEW OF PORCINE PrP AMYLOID
The pig is the most versatile species used by humans for food and other applications. Over 1,5 billion pigs are slaughtered each year worldwide for human use.32 Besides juicy pork sirloin other parts from pig are used for making remarkably diverse things such as musical instruments, china, leather, explosives, lubricants etc. Pig offal is used for human medicine, e.g., hormone preparations such as insulin and cerebrolysin, in xenographs, sutures, heparin and in gelatin for drug capsules.33,34
And that means not only pork, it means your pigskin wallet, catgut surgical suture...in tallow, in butter. It is undoubtedly in the blood supply. DC Gajdusek (From R. Rhodes ''Deadly Feast'' 35)
While the late Carleton Gajdusek had strong views in diverse areas of prion biology, according to journalist Richard Rhodes,35 he was correct on his prediction on BSE prions (vCJD) in the blood supply18 (see text box above). An opinionated scientist can sometimes be ignored due to a judgment of character and Gajdusek was certainly provocative. Notwithstanding society should remain vigilant on the possibility that Gajdusek was also prophetic on porcine prions given the exceptionally wide spread use of pigs in everyday human life and medicine.
As discussed previously it is currently not established what relations transmissible neurotoxic prion strains and amyloid morphotypic mature APrP strains have. Given the hypotheses that amyloidotypic PrP conformations can transmit with low neurotoxicity.7,36 it is interesting to reflect on possible implications. Pigs are slaughtered at 6–8 months of age. Because amyloid deposition is associated with old age, this is likely far too young for spontaneous development of APrP amyloid from PoPrP as well as other amyloidogenic proteins. From the perspective of seeded amyloidogenesis it is however a potential ideal case for highly transmissible titers of APrP (Fig. 4). In such a scenario the potential of porcine prions constitutes the perfect storm, clinically silent due to neurotoxic resistance and with high titers of transmissibility. When it comes to prions CNS material is most heavily infected.
In addition, however, fat tissue (to make lard and tallow) is known to harbor extraordinary amounts of amyloid in systemic amyloidoses.37 Amyloid fibrils of misfolded large proteins (AA, AL, ATTR) are notoriously hydrophobic due to the abnormal exposure of hydrophobic residues which normally in the folded structure being hidden in the protein core. The amyloid accumulation in fat tissue is likely a phase-separation from a rather hydrophilic environment in circulation toward the hydrophobic environment provided by adipocytes. Adipose tissue could in addition represent an in vivo environment well suitable for fibril formation. 
What about APrP?
In analysis of mice expressing Glycophosphatidylinositol, (GPI)-anchorless PrP, abdominal fat contains appreciable amounts of infectious prions in APrP isoform stained with ThS.38 Notably mice overexpressing anchorless PrP provides a silent carrier status for a long time prior to presenting symptoms and is severely afflicted by amyloid fibril formation following scrapie (RML) infection.39 Recall that this study showed that GPI-anchored PrP is needed to present clinical neurotoxicity. Evidently circulating anchorless-PrP (analogous to recPrP) is more amyloidogenic compared to GPI-anchored PrP and is poorly neuroinvasive.28 Amyloidosis is systemic in anchorless-PrP mice and is not limited to fat but is also found as extensive cardiac amyloid deposits.39 Interestingly cardiac APrP was recently reported in one BSE inoculated rhesus macaque which showed symptoms of cardiac distress prior to death from prion neurotoxicity.40 It is noteworthy that transgenic mice expressing PoPrP appear sensitive to strains with biochemical features of amyloidogenic prion strains i.e., BSE and Nor98.25,26,36 (Fig. 3b). We recently adopted the parallel inregister intermolecular b-sheet structural model of the APrP fibril from the Caughey lab to rationalize cross-seeding between various PrP sequences.12,41 It is tempting to use this structural model to speculate on the adaptation of mono-N-glycolsylated PoPrP at the expense of double-N-glycolylated PrP in the original BSE inoculum reported in the Torres experiments.25,26 In this APrP model monoglycosylated PrP at N197 is structurally compatible while N181 is not, due to burial in the in-register intermolecular cross-beta sheet (Fig. 5).
It appears that amyloidotypic prion strains, APrP, are transmissible but associated with lower neurotoxicity compared to diffuse aggregated PrP associated with synaptic PrP accumulations. It is possible that the amino acid substitutions in PoPrP compared to HuPrP and BoPrP are important for neurotoxic signal transmission (Fig. 2b, 5). The main issue hereby is that transmissibility of APrP will remain undetected unless used for surveillance. AA amyloidosis is frequent in many animals (e.g. cattle and birds) but is exceptionally rare in pigs.42 suggesting that APrP should it reside in pig fat would be traceable using newly developed screening methods.37

CONCLUDING REMARKS 

Should the topic of porcine PrP amyloid be more of a worry than of mere academic interest? Well perhaps. Prions are particularly insidious pathogens. A recent outbreak of peripheral neuropathy in human, suggests that exposure to aerosolized porcine brain is deleterious for human health.43,44 Aerosolization is a known vector for prions at least under experimental conditions.45-47 where a mere single exposure was enough for transmission in transgenic mice. HuPrP is seedable with BoPrP seeds and even more so with PoPrP seed (Fig. 1), indicating that humans could be infected by porcine APrP prions while neurotoxicity associated with spongiform encephalopathy if such a disease existed is even less clear. Importantly transgenic mice over-expressing PoPrP are susceptible to BSE and BSE passaged through domestic pigs implicating that efficient downstream neurotoxicity pathways in the mouse, a susceptible host for prion disease neurotoxicity is augmenting the TSE phenotype.25,26 Prions in silent carrier hosts can be infectious to a third species. Data from Collinge and coworkers.21 propose that species considered to be prion free may be carriers of replicating prions. Especially this may be of concern for promiscuous prion strains such as BSE.19,48 It is rather established that prions can exist in both replicating and neurotoxic conformations.49,50 and this can alter the way in which new host organisms can react upon cross-species transmission.51 The na€ıve host can either be totally resistant to prion infection as well as remain non-infectious, become a silent non-symptomatic but infectious carrier of disease or be afflicted by disease with short or long incubation time. The host can harbor and/or propagate the donor strain or convert the strain conformation to adapt it to the na€ıve host species. The latter would facilitate infection and shorten the incubation time in a consecutive event of intra-species transmission.
It may be advisable to avoid procedures and exposure without proper biosafety precautions as the knowledge of silence carrier species is poor.
One case of iatrogenic CJD in recipient of porcine dura mater graft has been reported in the literature.52 The significance of this finding is still unknown.
The low public awareness in this matter is exemplified by the practice of using proteolytic peptide mixtures prepared from porcine brains (Cerebrolysin) as a nootropic drug. While Cerebrolysin may be beneficial for treatment of severe diseases such as vascular dementia,53 a long term follow-up of such a product for recreational use is recommended.
DISCLOSURE OF POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
No potential conflicts of interest were disclosed
FUNDING
This work was supported by G€oran Gustafsson foundation, the Swedish research council Grant #2011-5804 (PH) and the Swedish Alzheimer association (SN).
REFERENCES
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2006 Jul; 77(7): 880–882. Published online 2006 Apr 20. doi: [10.1136/jnnp.2005.073395] PMCID: PMC2117491 PMID: 16627534 
Dura mater‐associated Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease: experience from surveillance in the UK 
C A Heath, R A Barker, T F G Esmonde, P Harvey, R Roberts, P Trend, M W Head, C Smith, J E Bell, J W Ironside, R G Will, and R S G Knight Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Go to: 
Abstract 
Between 1970 and 2003, seven cases of human dura mater‐associated Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) were identified in the UK. Furthermore, we identified a case of CJD in a porcine dura graft recipient. The mean incubation period of the human dura mater cases was 93 (range 45–177) months. The clinico‐pathological features of the cases are described and compared with cases previously reported in the world literature.
Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) exists in four clinical forms: sporadic, genetic, iatrogenic and variant. The cause of sporadic CJD, the most common form worldwide, is unknown and case–control studies have failed to identify any consistent risk factor, although two studies have implicated previous surgical interventions.1,2 Genetic forms of the disease are associated with underlying mutations of the prion protein gene (PRNP), which are generally considered to be directly causative. Mutations, however, possibly increase liability to some, as of yet unrecognised, source of infection. The two remaining forms of CJD are acquired. Variant CJD is considered to be caused by bovine spongiform encephalopathy through contaminated food products3,4,5; iatrogenic CJD results from the inadvertent transmission of CJD during the course of medical or surgical treatment. The two most numerically significant instances of iatrogenic CJD resulted from treatment with cadaveric human growth hormone and the use of dura mater grafts in surgery. Corneal grafts, depth electrodes and neurosurgical instruments have also rarely been implicated.6,7
The first report of dura mater‐associated CJD was published in 1987,8 with a more detailed report appearing the following year;9 to date, 164 cases have been recognised worldwide (P Brown, personal communication, 2006). This paper reports and describes the seven cases of human dura mater graft‐associated CJD identified during surveillance in the UK and, for the first time, reports a case of CJD in a porcine dura graft recipient.
snip...
Discussion Human dura mater is a rare, but important source of transmission of human prion disease, with only seven cases recognised in a 33‐year period. Surveillance systems worldwide have identified 164 cases of CJD in people previously exposed to human dura mater. Prevalence is particularly high in Japan and probably reflects neurosurgical practice, with an estimated 20 000 grafts used each year.15 The overall risk of CJD associated with human dura grafts in the UK is unknown because an accurate estimation of human dura graft use and thus a denominator for calculation of risk is not available. The estimated risk after exposure in Japan has been estimated to be approximately 1 per 2000 patients treated between 1979 and 2000 and approximately 1 per 1000 between 1983 and 1987.16 Neurosurgical practice in Japan, with widespread use of dura mater, may be different from other countries throughout the industrialised world and therefore it is unreasonable to extrapolate any estimated risk from these data. If neurosurgical practices in the UK were more akin to those in Australia, then a subsequent study by Brooke and co‐workers would help provide additional information pertaining to estimated risk. By using information from the Australian CJD Surveillance system, Brooke and co‐workers estimated the risk associated with exposure to human dura mater to be approximately 1 per 500 patients treated between 1978 and 2003.17 Clearly, the risk of developing CJD in this patient population is considerably higher than we would expect by chance. 
 The human dura mater implicated in the transmission of CJD was processed, almost exclusively, by B Braun Melsungen in Germany and traded under the name Lyodura. Over 100 Japanese cases, and all but one of the UK cases (the source of the first case identified in the UK is unknown), have been associated with this particular product and only rarely has dura processed by other manufacturers been associated with transmission.18,19 Although the first case in the UK was exposed to potentially infectious dura in 1969, a disproportionately large number of cases were exposed between 1983 and 1987 (80% of those identified worldwide and six of the seven cases in the UK). Interestingly, the apparent reduction in the number of cases post‐1987 coincided with the introduction of stringent donor selection criteria and the introduction of sodium hydroxide immersion techniques in the manufacturing process. 
 We found no temporal or geographical association between any of the dura‐associated cases, or any other case of CJD identified in the UK, despite potential contamination of neurosurgical instruments. 
 It has been proposed that clinical features at onset are dependent on the site of graft placement or underlying parenchymal damage20,21,22 and our findings may support such a proposition. The explanation for this observation is unclear. We, could, speculate that the pathological process starts within a region adjacent to the graft and that this is reflected in the early clinical features. This proposition may also be supported by findings obtained at autopsy, with severe pathological changes identified adjacent to graft placement in three cases. Overall, the pathology is consistent for that previously described in dura mater‐associated CJD.9,18 We did not identify either “kuru‐type” or florid PrP plaques. The florid PrP plaques were previously noted in limited distribution in a small number of dural graft‐associated iatrogenic CJD cases in Japan.21,23,24 
 We believe case VIII represents the first reported case of CJD in a person previously exposed to a graft from a non‐human source. The age at onset, duration of illness, clinical and investigative features were similar to a typical case of sporadic CJD. Furthermore, the pathological features were also considered characteristic of sporadic CJD, with type 1 PrPres identified. Neither finding can definitively exclude the possibility of transmission of a yet unidentified pathogen. As natural transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are, however, as yet unrecognised in pigs, despite experimental transmission in animal models,25 a chance association seems the most plausible explanation.
https://madporcinedisease.blogspot.com/
TUESDAY, AUGUST 1, 2017
BSE INQUIRY DFA 17 Medicines and medical devices
TUESDAY, AUGUST 1, 2017 
Could diabetes spread like mad cow disease?
TUESDAY, AUGUST 1, 2017 
Could Insulin be contaminated with and potentially spread, Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE Prion, what if?
PRION 2015 CONFERENCE

O.05: Transmission of prions to primates after extended silent incubation periods: Implications for BSE and scrapie risk assessment in human populations 

***is the third potentially zoonotic PD (with BSE and L-type BSE),  ***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases. 
O.05: Transmission of prions to primates after extended silent incubation periods: Implications for BSE and scrapie risk assessment in human populations 
Emmanuel Comoy, Jacqueline Mikol, Valerie Durand, Sophie Luccantoni, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra, Capucine Dehen, and Jean-Philippe Deslys Atomic Energy Commission; Fontenay-aux-Roses, France  
Prion diseases (PD) are the unique neurodegenerative proteinopathies reputed to be transmissible under field conditions since decades. The transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) to humans evidenced that an animal PD might be zoonotic under appropriate conditions. Contrarily, in the absence of obvious (epidemiological or experimental) elements supporting a transmission or genetic predispositions, PD, like the other proteinopathies, are reputed to occur spontaneously (atpical animal prion strains, sporadic CJD summing 80% of human prion cases).  Non-human primate models provided the first evidences supporting the transmissibiity of human prion strains and the zoonotic potential of BSE. Among them, cynomolgus macaques brought major information for BSE risk assessment for human health (Chen, 2014), according to their phylogenetic proximity to humans and extended lifetime. We used this model to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal PD from bovine, ovine and cervid origins even after very long silent incubation periods.  
*** We recently observed the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to macaque after a 10-year silent incubation period,  
***with features similar to some reported for human cases of sporadic CJD, albeit requiring fourfold long incubation than BSE. Scrapie, as recently evoked in humanized mice (Cassard, 2014),  
***is the third potentially zoonotic PD (with BSE and L-type BSE),  
***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases.  
We will present an updated panorama of our different transmission studies and discuss the implications of such extended incubation periods on risk assessment of animal PD for human health.  
===============  
***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases***  
===============  
***our findings suggest that possible transmission risk of H-type BSE to sheep and human. Bioassay will be required to determine whether the PMCA products are infectious to these animals.  
==============  
https://prion2015.files.wordpress.com/2015/05/prion2015abstracts.pdf
  
***Transmission data also revealed that several scrapie prions propagate in HuPrP-Tg mice with efficiency comparable to that of cattle BSE. While the efficiency of transmission at primary passage was low, subsequent passages resulted in a highly virulent prion disease in both Met129 and Val129 mice.  
***Transmission of the different scrapie isolates in these mice leads to the emergence of prion strain phenotypes that showed similar characteristics to those displayed by MM1 or VV2 sCJD prion.  
***These results demonstrate that scrapie prions have a zoonotic potential and raise new questions about the possible link between animal and human prions.
 
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19336896.2016.1163048?journalCode=kprn20 
PRION 2016 TOKYO 
Saturday, April 23, 2016 
SCRAPIE WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 
2016 Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X online Taylor & Francis 
Prion 2016 Animal Prion Disease Workshop 
Abstracts WS-01: 
Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 
Juan Maria Torres a, Olivier Andreoletti b, J uan-Carlos Espinosa a. Vincent Beringue c. Patricia Aguilar a, Natalia Fernandez-Borges a. and Alba Marin-Moreno a "Centro de Investigacion en Sanidad Animal ( CISA-INIA ). Valdeolmos, Madrid. Spain; b UMR INRA -ENVT 1225 Interactions Holes Agents Pathogenes. ENVT. Toulouse. France: "UR892. Virologie lmmunologie MolécuIaires, Jouy-en-Josas. France 
Dietary exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) contaminated bovine tissues is considered as the origin of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob (vCJD) disease in human. To date, BSE agent is the only recognized zoonotic prion.. Despite the variety of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) agents that have been circulating for centuries in farmed ruminants there is no apparent epidemiological link between exposure to ruminant products and the occurrence of other form of TSE in human like sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (sCJD). However, the zoonotic potential of the diversity of circulating TSE agents has never been systematically assessed. The major issue in experimental assessment of TSEs zoonotic potential lies in the modeling of the ‘species barrier‘, the biological phenomenon that limits TSE agents’ propagation from a species to another. In the last decade, mice genetically engineered to express normal forms of the human prion protein has proved essential in studying human prions pathogenesis and modeling the capacity of TSEs to cross the human species barrier. To assess the zoonotic potential of prions circulating in farmed ruminants, we study their transmission ability in transgenic mice expressing human PrPC (HuPrP-Tg). Two lines of mice expressing different forms of the human PrPC (129Met or 129Val) are used to determine the role of the Met129Val dimorphism in susceptibility/resistance to the different agents. 
These transmission experiments confirm the ability of BSE prions to propagate in 129M- HuPrP-Tg mice and demonstrate that Met129 homozygotes may be susceptible to BSE in sheep or goat to a greater degree than the BSE agent in cattle and that these agents can convey molecular properties and neuropathological indistinguishable from vCJD. However homozygous 129V mice are resistant to all tested BSE derived prions independently of the originating species suggesting a higher transmission barrier for 129V-PrP variant. 
Transmission data also revealed that several scrapie prions propagate in HuPrP-Tg mice with efficiency comparable to that of cattle BSE. While the efficiency of transmission at primary passage was low, subsequent passages resulted in a highly virulent prion disease in both Met129 and Val129 mice. 
Transmission of the different scrapie isolates in these mice leads to the emergence of prion strain phenotypes that showed similar characteristics to those displayed by MM1 or VV2 sCJD prion.  
These results demonstrate that scrapie prions have a zoonotic potential and raise new questions about the possible link between animal and human prions.
 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19336896.2016.1163048?journalCode=kprn20
why do we not want to do TSE transmission studies on chimpanzees $ 5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severly would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis. 
snip... R. BRADLEY 
https://web.archive.org/web/20170126051158/http://collections.europarchive.org/tna/20080102222950/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/09/23001001.pdf
Title: Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period)  
*** In complement to the recent demonstration that humanized mice are susceptible to scrapie, we report here the first observation of direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to a macaque after a 10-year incubation period. Neuropathologic examination revealed all of the features of a prion disease: spongiform change, neuronal loss, and accumulation of PrPres throughout the CNS.  
*** This observation strengthens the questioning of the harmlessness of scrapie to humans, at a time when protective measures for human and animal health are being dismantled and reduced as c-BSE is considered controlled and being eradicated.  
*** Our results underscore the importance of precautionary and protective measures and the necessity for long-term experimental transmission studies to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal prion strains. 
http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=313160
***> Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility. <***
Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period 
Emmanuel E. Comoy, Jacqueline Mikol, Sophie Luccantoni-Freire, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Valérie Durand, Capucine Dehen, Olivier Andreoletti, Cristina Casalone, Juergen A. Richt, Justin J. Greenlee, Thierry Baron, Sylvie L. Benestad, Paul Brown & Jean-Philippe Deslys Scientific Reports volume 5, Article number: 11573 (2015) | Download Citation
Abstract 
Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (c-BSE) is the only animal prion disease reputed to be zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans and having guided protective measures for animal and human health against animal prion diseases. Recently, partial transmissions to humanized mice showed that the zoonotic potential of scrapie might be similar to c-BSE. We here report the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to cynomolgus macaque, a highly relevant model for human prion diseases, after a 10-year silent incubation period, with features similar to those reported for human cases of sporadic CJD. Scrapie is thus actually transmissible to primates with incubation periods compatible with their life expectancy, although fourfold longer than BSE. Long-term experimental transmission studies are necessary to better assess the zoonotic potential of other prion diseases with high prevalence, notably Chronic Wasting Disease of deer and elk and atypical/Nor98 scrapie.
SNIP...

Discussion We describe the transmission of spongiform encephalopathy in a non-human primate inoculated 10 years earlier with a strain of sheep c-scrapie. Because of this extended incubation period in a facility in which other prion diseases are under study, we are obliged to consider two alternative possibilities that might explain its occurrence. We first considered the possibility of a sporadic origin (like CJD in humans). Such an event is extremely improbable because the inoculated animal was 14 years old when the clinical signs appeared, i.e. about 40% through the expected natural lifetime of this species, compared to a peak age incidence of 60–65 years in human sporadic CJD, or about 80% through their expected lifetimes. Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.
The second possibility is a laboratory cross-contamination. Three facts make this possibility equally unlikely. First, handling of specimens in our laboratory is performed with fastidious attention to the avoidance of any such cross-contamination. Second, no laboratory cross-contamination has ever been documented in other primate laboratories, including the NIH, even between infected and uninfected animals housed in the same or adjacent cages with daily intimate contact (P. Brown, personal communication). 
Third, the cerebral lesion profile is different from all the other prion diseases we have studied in this model19, with a correlation between cerebellar lesions (massive spongiform change of Purkinje cells, intense PrPres staining and reactive gliosis26) and ataxia. The iron deposits present in the globus pallidus are a non specific finding that have been reported previously in neurodegenerative diseases and aging27. Conversely, the thalamic lesion was reminiscent of a metabolic disease due to thiamine deficiency28 but blood thiamine levels were within normal limits (data not shown). 
The preferential distribution of spongiform change in cortex associated with a limited distribution in the brainstem is reminiscent of the lesion profile in MM2c and VV1 sCJD patients29, but interspecies comparison of lesion profiles should be interpreted with caution. 
It is of note that the same classical scrapie isolate induced TSE in C57Bl/6 mice with similar incubation periods and lesional profiles as a sample derived from a MM1 sCJD patient30.
We are therefore confident that the illness in this cynomolgus macaque represents a true transmission of a sheep c-scrapie isolate directly to an old-world monkey, which taxonomically resides in the primate subdivision (parvorder of catarrhini) that includes humans. 
With an homology of its PrP protein with humans of 96.4%31, cynomolgus macaque constitutes a highly relevant model for assessing zoonotic risk of prion diseases. 
Since our initial aim was to show the absence of transmission of scrapie to macaques in the worst-case scenario, we obtained materials from a flock of naturally-infected sheep, affecting animals with different genotypes32. This c-scrapie isolate exhibited complete transmission in ARQ/ARQ sheep (332 ± 56 days) and Tg338 transgenic mice expressing ovine VRQ/VRQ prion protein (220 ± 5 days) (O. Andreoletti, personal communication). From the standpoint of zoonotic risk, it is important to note that sheep with c-scrapie (including the isolate used in our study) have demonstrable infectivity throughout their lymphoreticular system early in the incubation period of the disease (3 months-old for all the lymphoid organs, and as early as 2 months-old in gut-associated lymph nodes)33. 
In addition, scrapie infectivity has been identified in blood34, milk35 and skeletal muscle36 from asymptomatic but scrapie infected small ruminants which implies a potential dietary exposure for consumers.
Two earlier studies have reported the occurrence of clinical TSE in cynomolgus macaques after exposures to scrapie isolates. In the first study, the “Compton” scrapie isolate (derived from an English sheep) and serially propagated for 9 passages in goats did not transmit TSE in cynomolgus macaque, rhesus macaque or chimpanzee within 7 years following intracerebral challenge1; conversely, after 8 supplementary passages in conventional mice, this “Compton” isolate induced TSE in a cynomolgus macaque 5 years after intracerebral challenge, but rhesus macaques and chimpanzee remained asymptomatic 8.5 years post-exposure8. However, multiple successive passages that are classically used to select laboratory-adapted prion strains can significantly modify the initial properties of a scrapie isolate, thus questioning the relevance of zoonotic potential for the initial sheep-derived isolate. The same isolate had also induced disease into squirrel monkeys (new-world monkey)9. A second historical observation reported that a cynomolgus macaque developed TSE 6 years post-inoculation with brain homogenate from a scrapie-infected Suffolk ewe (derived from USA), whereas a rhesus macaque and a chimpanzee exposed to the same inoculum remained healthy 9 years post-exposure1. This inoculum also induced TSE in squirrel monkeys after 4 passages in mice. Other scrapie transmission attempts in macaque failed but had more shorter periods of observation in comparison to the current study. Further, it is possible that there are differences in the zoonotic potential of different scrapie strains.
The most striking observation in our study is the extended incubation period of scrapie in the macaque model, which has several implications. 
Firstly, our observations constitute experimental evidence in favor of the zoonotic potential of c-scrapie, at least for this isolate that has been extensively studied32,33,34,35,36. The cross-species zoonotic ability of this isolate should be confirmed by performing duplicate intracerebral exposures and assessing the transmissibility by the oral route (a successful transmission of prion strains through the intracerebral route may not necessarily indicate the potential for oral transmission37). However, such confirmatory experiments may require more than one decade, which is hardly compatible with current general management and support of scientific projects; thus this study should be rather considered as a case report.
Secondly, transmission of c-BSE to primates occurred within 8 years post exposure for the lowest doses able to transmit the disease (the survival period after inoculation is inversely proportional to the initial amount of infectious inoculum). The occurrence of scrapie 10 years after exposure to a high dose (25 mg) of scrapie-infected sheep brain suggests that the macaque has a higher species barrier for sheep c-scrapie than c-BSE, although it is notable that previous studies based on in vitro conversion of PrP suggested that BSE and scrapie prions would have a similar conversion potential for human PrP38.
Thirdly, prion diseases typically have longer incubation periods after oral exposure than after intracerebral inoculations: since humans can develop Kuru 47 years after oral exposure39, an incubation time of several decades after oral exposure to scrapie would therefore be expected, leading the disease to occur in older adults, i.e. the peak age for cases considered to be sporadic disease, and making a distinction between scrapie-associated and truly sporadic disease extremely difficult to appreciate.
Fourthly, epidemiologic evidence is necessary to confirm the zoonotic potential of an animal disease suggested by experimental studies. A relatively short incubation period and a peculiar epidemiological situation (e.g., all the first vCJD cases occurring in the country with the most important ongoing c-BSE epizootic) led to a high degree of suspicion that c-BSE was the cause of vCJD. Sporadic CJD are considered spontaneous diseases with an almost stable and constant worldwide prevalence (0.5–2 cases per million inhabitants per year), and previous epidemiological studies were unable to draw a link between sCJD and classical scrapie6,7,40,41, even though external causes were hypothesized to explain the occurrence of some sCJD clusters42,43,44. However, extended incubation periods exceeding several decades would impair the predictive values of epidemiological surveillance for prion diseases, already weakened by a limited prevalence of prion diseases and the multiplicity of isolates gathered under the phenotypes of “scrapie” and “sporadic CJD”.
Fifthly, considering this 10 year-long incubation period, together with both laboratory and epidemiological evidence of decade or longer intervals between infection and clinical onset of disease, no premature conclusions should be drawn from negative transmission studies in cynomolgus macaques with less than a decade of observation, as in the aforementioned historical transmission studies of scrapie to primates1,8,9. Our observations and those of others45,46 to date are unable to provide definitive evidence regarding the zoonotic potential of CWD, atypical/Nor98 scrapie or H-type BSE. The extended incubation period of the scrapie-affected macaque in the current study also underscores the limitations of rodent models expressing human PrP for assessing the zoonotic potential of some prion diseases since their lifespan remains limited to approximately two years21,47,48. This point is illustrated by the fact that the recently reported transmission of scrapie to humanized mice was not associated with clinical signs for up to 750 days and occurred in an extreme minority of mice with only a marginal increase in attack rate upon second passage13. The low attack rate in these studies is certainly linked to the limited lifespan of mice compared to the very long periods of observation necessary to demonstrate the development of scrapie. Alternatively, one could estimate that a successful second passage is the result of strain adaptation to the species barrier, thus poorly relevant of the real zoonotic potential of the original scrapie isolate of sheep origin49. 
The development of scrapie in this primate after an incubation period compatible with its lifespan complements the study conducted in transgenic (humanized) mice; taken together these studies suggest that some isolates of sheep scrapie can promote misfolding of the human prion protein and that scrapie can develop within the lifespan of some primate species.
In addition to previous studies on scrapie transmission to primate1,8,9 and the recently published study on transgenic humanized mice13, our results constitute new evidence for recommending that the potential risk of scrapie for human health should not be dismissed. Indeed, human PrP transgenic mice and primates are the most relevant models for investigating the human transmission barrier. To what extent such models are informative for measuring the zoonotic potential of an animal TSE under field exposure conditions is unknown. During the past decades, many protective measures have been successfully implemented to protect cattle from the spread of c-BSE, and some of these measures have been extended to sheep and goats to protect from scrapie according to the principle of precaution. 
Since cases of c-BSE have greatly reduced in number, those protective measures are currently being challenged and relaxed in the absence of other known zoonotic animal prion disease. We recommend that risk managers should be aware of the long term potential risk to human health of at least certain scrapie isolates, notably for lymphotropic strains like the classical scrapie strain used in the current study. Relatively high amounts of infectivity in peripheral lymphoid organs in animals infected with these strains could lead to contamination of food products produced for human consumption. 
Efforts should also be maintained to further assess the zoonotic potential of other animal prion strains in long-term studies, notably lymphotropic strains with high prevalence like CWD, which is spreading across North America, and atypical/Nor98 scrapie (Nor98)50 that was first detected in the past two decades and now represents approximately half of all reported cases of prion diseases in small ruminants worldwide, including territories previously considered as scrapie free.. 
Even if the prevailing view is that sporadic CJD is due to the spontaneous formation of CJD prions, it remains possible that its apparent sporadic nature may, at least in part, result from our limited capacity to identify an environmental origin.

Singeltary on Scrapie and human transmission way back, see;
ZOONOTIC CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION UPDATE
here is the latest;
PRION 2018 CONFERENCE
Oral transmission of CWD into Cynomolgus macaques: signs of atypical disease, prion conversion and infectivity in macaques and bio-assayed transgenic mice 
Hermann M. Schatzl, Samia Hannaoui, Yo-Ching Cheng, Sabine Gilch (Calgary Prion Research Unit, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada) Michael Beekes (RKI Berlin), Walter Schulz-Schaeffer (University of Homburg/Saar, Germany), Christiane Stahl-Hennig (German Primate Center) & Stefanie Czub (CFIA Lethbridge). 
To date, BSE is the only example of interspecies transmission of an animal prion disease into humans. The potential zoonotic transmission of CWD is an alarming issue and was addressed by many groups using a variety of in vitro and in vivo experimental systems. Evidence from these studies indicated a substantial, if not absolute, species barrier, aligning with the absence of epidemiological evidence suggesting transmission into humans. Studies in non-human primates were not conclusive so far, with oral transmission into new-world monkeys and no transmission into old-world monkeys. 
Our consortium has challenged 18 Cynomolgus macaques with characterized CWD material, focusing on oral transmission with muscle tissue. Some macaques have orally received a total of 5 kg of muscle material over a period of 2 years. After 5-7 years of incubation time some animals showed clinical symptoms indicative of prion disease, and prion neuropathology and PrPSc deposition were detected in spinal cord and brain of some euthanized animals. PrPSc in immunoblot was weakly detected in some spinal cord materials and various tissues tested positive in RT-QuIC, including lymph node and spleen homogenates. To prove prion infectivity in the macaque tissues, we have intracerebrally inoculated 2 lines of transgenic mice, expressing either elk or human PrP. At least 3 TgElk mice, receiving tissues from 2 different macaques, showed clinical signs of a progressive prion disease and brains were positive in immunoblot and RT-QuIC. Tissues (brain, spinal cord and spleen) from these and pre-clinical mice are currently tested using various read-outs and by second passage in mice. Transgenic mice expressing human PrP were so far negative for clear clinical prion disease (some mice >300 days p.i.). In parallel, the same macaque materials are inoculated into bank voles. 
Taken together, there is strong evidence of transmissibility of CWD orally into macaques and from macaque tissues into transgenic mouse models, although with an incomplete attack rate. The clinical and pathological presentation in macaques was mostly atypical, with a strong emphasis on spinal cord pathology. Our ongoing studies will show whether the transmission of CWD into macaques and passage in transgenic mice represents a form of non-adaptive prion amplification, and whether macaque-adapted prions have the potential to infect mice expressing human PrP. 
The notion that CWD can be transmitted orally into both new-world and old-world non-human primates asks for a careful reevaluation of the zoonotic risk of CWD.
***> The notion that CWD can be transmitted orally into both new-world and old-world non-human primates asks for a careful reevaluation of the zoonotic risk of CWD. <***
READING OVER THE PRION 2018 ABSTRACT BOOK, LOOKS LIKE THEY FOUND THAT from this study ;
P190 Human prion disease mortality rates by occurrence of chronic wasting disease in freeranging cervids, United States 
Abrams JY (1), Maddox RA (1), Schonberger LB (1), Person MK (1), Appleby BS (2), Belay ED (1) (1) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, USA (2) Case Western Reserve University, National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center (NPDPSC), Cleveland, OH, USA. 
SEEMS THAT THEY FOUND Highly endemic states had a higher rate of prion disease mortality compared to non-CWD states.
AND ANOTHER STUDY;
P172 Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients with Prion Disease 
Wang H(1), Cohen M(1), Appleby BS(1,2) (1) University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio (2) National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center, Cleveland, Ohio..
IN THIS STUDY, THERE WERE autopsy-proven prion cases from the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center that were diagnosed between September 2016 to March 2017, AND included 104 patients.
SEEMS THEY FOUND THAT The most common sCJD subtype was MV1-2 (30%), followed by MM1-2 (20%), AND THAT The Majority of cases were male (60%), AND half of them had exposure to wild game.
snip...
see more on Prion 2017 Macaque study from Prion 2017 Conference and other updated science on cwd tse prion zoonosis below...terry
just out CDC...see;
Research
Susceptibility of Human Prion Protein to Conversion by Chronic Wasting Disease Prions
Marcelo A. BarriaComments to Author , Adriana Libori, Gordon Mitchell, and Mark W. Head Author affiliations: National CJD Research and Surveillance Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK (M.A. Barria, A. Libori, M.W. Head); National and OIE Reference Laboratory for Scrapie and CWD, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (G. Mitchell)
M. A. Barria et al.
ABSTRACT
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a contagious and fatal neurodegenerative disease and a serious animal health issue for deer and elk in North America. The identification of the first cases of CWD among free-ranging reindeer and moose in Europe brings back into focus the unresolved issue of whether CWD can be zoonotic like bovine spongiform encephalopathy. We used a cell-free seeded protein misfolding assay to determine whether CWD prions from elk, white-tailed deer, and reindeer in North America can convert the human prion protein to the disease-associated form. We found that prions can convert, but the efficiency of conversion is affected by polymorphic variation in the cervid and human prion protein genes. In view of the similarity of reindeer, elk, and white-tailed deer in North America to reindeer, red deer, and roe deer, respectively, in Europe, a more comprehensive and thorough assessment of the zoonotic potential of CWD might be warranted. 
Molecular Barriers to Zoonotic Transmission of Prions 
Marcelo A. Barria, Aru Balachandran, Masanori Morita, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, Rona Barron, Jean Manson, Richard Knight, James W. Ironside, and Mark W. Headcorresponding author 
snip... 
The conversion of human PrPC by CWD brain homogenate in PMCA reactions was less efficient when the amino acid at position 129 was valine rather than methionine. 
***Furthermore, the form of human PrPres produced in this in vitro assay when seeded with CWD, resembles that found in the most common human prion disease, namely sCJD of the MM1 subtype. 
snip... 
However, we can say with confidence that under the conditions used here, none of the animal isolates tested were as efficient as C-type BSE in converting human PrPC, which is reassuring. 
***Less reassuring is the finding that there is no absolute barrier to the conversion of human PrPC by CWD prions in a protocol using a single round of PMCA and an entirely human substrate prepared from the target organ of prion diseases, the brain. 
Prion 2017 
Conference Abstracts CWD 2017 PRION CONFERENCE 
First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques: a work in progress 
Stefanie Czub1, Walter Schulz-Schaeffer2, Christiane Stahl-Hennig3, Michael Beekes4, Hermann Schaetzl5 and Dirk Motzkus6 1 
University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine/Canadian Food Inspection Agency; 2Universitatsklinikum des Saarlandes und Medizinische Fakultat der Universitat des Saarlandes; 3 Deutsches Primaten Zentrum/Goettingen; 4 Robert-Koch-Institut Berlin; 5 University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine; 6 presently: Boehringer Ingelheim Veterinary Research Center; previously: Deutsches Primaten Zentrum/Goettingen 
This is a progress report of a project which started in 2009. 21 cynomolgus macaques were challenged with characterized CWD material from white-tailed deer (WTD) or elk by intracerebral (ic), oral, and skin exposure routes. 
Additional blood transfusion experiments are supposed to assess the CWD contamination risk of human blood product. 
Challenge materials originated from symptomatic cervids for ic, skin scarification and partially per oral routes (WTD brain). Challenge material for feeding of muscle derived from preclinical WTD and from preclinical macaques for blood transfusion experiments. 
We have confirmed that the CWD challenge material contained at least two different CWD agents (brain material) as well as CWD prions in muscle-associated nerves. 
Here we present first data on a group of animals either challenged ic with steel wires or per orally and sacrificed with incubation times ranging from 4.5 to 6.9 years at postmortem. 
Three animals displayed signs of mild clinical disease, including anxiety, apathy, ataxia and/or tremor. In four animals wasting was observed, two of those had confirmed diabetes. 
All animals have variable signs of prion neuropathology in spinal cords and brains and by supersensitive IHC, reaction was detected in spinal cord segments of all animals. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA), real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuiC) and PET-blot assays to further substantiate these findings are on the way, as well as bioassays in bank voles and transgenic mice. 
At present, a total of 10 animals are sacrificed and read-outs are ongoing. Preclinical incubation of the remaining macaques covers a range from 6.4 to 7.10 years. 
Based on the species barrier and an incubation time of > 5 years for BSE in macaques and about 10 years for scrapie in macaques, we expected an onset of clinical disease beyond 6 years post inoculation. 
PRION 2017 
DECIPHERING NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS 
Subject: PRION 2017 CONFERENCE DECIPHERING NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS VIDEO 
PRION 2017 
CONFERENCE DECIPHERING NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS 
*** PRION 2017 CONFERENCE VIDEO 
Cervid to human prion transmission 
Kong, Qingzhong 
Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States
Abstract 
Prion disease is transmissible and invariably fatal. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the prion disease affecting deer, elk and moose, and it is a widespread and expanding epidemic affecting 22 US States and 2 Canadian provinces so far. CWD poses the most serious zoonotic prion transmission risks in North America because of huge venison consumption (>6 million deer/elk hunted and consumed annually in the USA alone), significant prion infectivity in muscles and other tissues/fluids from CWD-affected cervids, and usually high levels of individual exposure to CWD resulting from consumption of the affected animal among often just family and friends. However, we still do not know whether CWD prions can infect humans in the brain or peripheral tissues or whether clinical/asymptomatic CWD zoonosis has already occurred, and we have no essays to reliably detect CWD infection in humans. 
We hypothesize that: 
(1) The classic CWD prion strain can infect humans at low levels in the brain and peripheral lymphoid tissues; 
(2) The cervid-to-human transmission barrier is dependent on the cervid prion strain and influenced by the host (human) prion protein (PrP) primary sequence; 
(3) Reliable essays can be established to detect CWD infection in humans; and 
(4) CWD transmission to humans has already occurred. We will test these hypotheses in 4 Aims using transgenic (Tg) mouse models and complementary in vitro approaches. 
Aim 1 will prove that the classical CWD strain may infect humans in brain or peripheral lymphoid tissues at low levels by conducting systemic bioassays in a set of humanized Tg mouse lines expressing common human PrP variants using a number of CWD isolates at varying doses and routes. Experimental human CWD samples will also be generated for Aim 3. 
Aim 2 will test the hypothesis that the cervid-to-human prion transmission barrier is dependent on prion strain and influenced by the host (human) PrP sequence by examining and comparing the transmission efficiency and phenotypes of several atypical/unusual CWD isolates/strains as well as a few prion strains from other species that have adapted to cervid PrP sequence, utilizing the same panel of humanized Tg mouse lines as in Aim 1. 
Aim 3 will establish reliable essays for detection and surveillance of CWD infection in humans by examining in details the clinical, pathological, biochemical and in vitro seeding properties of existing and future experimental human CWD samples generated from Aims 1-2 and compare them with those of common sporadic human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) prions. 
Aim 4 will attempt to detect clinical CWD-affected human cases by examining a significant number of brain samples from prion-affected human subjects in the USA and Canada who have consumed venison from CWD-endemic areas utilizing the criteria and essays established in Aim 3. The findings from this proposal will greatly advance our understandings on the potential and characteristics of cervid prion transmission in humans, establish reliable essays for CWD zoonosis and potentially discover the first case(s) of CWD infection in humans.
Public Health Relevance
There are significant and increasing human exposure to cervid prions because chronic wasting disease (CWD, a widespread and highly infectious prion disease among deer and elk in North America) continues spreading and consumption of venison remains popular, but our understanding on cervid-to-human prion transmission is still very limited, raising public health concerns. This proposal aims to define the zoonotic risks of cervid prions and set up and apply essays to detect CWD zoonosis using mouse models and in vitro methods. The findings will greatly expand our knowledge on the potentials and characteristics of cervid prion transmission in humans, establish reliable essays for such infections and may discover the first case(s) of CWD infection in humans.
Funding Agency
Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01NS088604-04
Application #
9517118
Study Section
Cellular and Molecular Biology of Neurodegeneration Study Section (CMND)
Program Officer Wong, May
Project Start 2015-09-30 Project End 2019-07-31 Budget Start 2018-08-01 Budget End 2019-07-31 Support Year 4 Fiscal Year 2018 Total Cost Indirect Cost Institution Name Case Western Reserve University 
Department Pathology Type Schools of Medicine DUNS # 077758407 City Cleveland State OH Country United States Zip Code 44106
 Related projects
NIH 2018 R01 NS Cervid to human prion transmission Kong, Qingzhong / Case Western Reserve University 
NIH 2017 R01 NS Cervid to human prion transmission Kong, Qingzhong / Case Western Reserve University 
NIH 2016 R01 NS Cervid to human prion transmission Kong, Qingzhong / Case Western Reserve University 
NIH 2015 R01 NS Cervid to human prion transmission Kong, Qingzhong / Case Western Reserve University 
$337,507

ZOONOTIC, ZOONOSIS, CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY TSE PRION  10. ZOONOTIC, ZOONOSIS, CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY TSE PRION AKA MAD DEER ELK DISEASE IN HUMANS, has it already happened, that should be the question...  
''In particular the US data do not clearly exclude the possibility of human (sporadic or familial) TSE development due to consumption of venison. The Working Group thus recognizes a potential risk to consumers if a TSE would be present in European cervids.'' 
Scientific opinion on chronic wasting disease (II) EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) Antonia Ricci Ana Allende Declan Bolton Marianne Chemaly Robert Davies Pablo Salvador Fernández Escámez ... 
See all authors  First published: 17 January 2018 
https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5132
also, see;  
8. Even though human TSEexposure risk through consumption of game from European cervids can be assumed to be minor, if at all existing, no final conclusion can be drawn due to the overall lack of scientific data. In particular the US data do not clearly exclude the possibility of human (sporadic or familial) TSE development due to consumption of venison. The Working Group thus recognizes a potential risk to consumers if a TSE would be present in European cervids. It might be prudent considering appropriate measures to reduce such a risk, e.g. excluding tissues such as CNS and lymphoid tissues from the human food chain, which would greatly reduce any potential risk for consumers. However, it is stressed that currently, no data regarding a risk of TSE infections from cervid products are available.  
snip...  
The tissue distribution of infectivity in CWDinfected cervids is now known to extend beyond CNS and lymphoid tissues. While the removal of these specific tissues from the food chain would reduce human dietary exposure to infectivity, exclusion from the food chain of the whole carcass of any infected animal would be required to eliminate human dietary exposure.  
https://efsa.onlinelibrary..wiley.com/doi/full/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5132
zoonosis zoonotic cervid tse prion cwd to humans, preparing for the storm  
***An alternative to modeling the species barrier is the cell-free conversion assay which points to CWD as the animal prion disease with the greatest zoonotic potential, after (and very much less than) BSE.116***  
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.4161/pri.29237
  To date there is no direct evidence that CWD has been or can be transmitted from animals to humans.  However, initial findings from a laboratory research project funded by the Alberta Prion Research Institute (APRI) and Alberta Livestock Meat Agency (ALMA), and led by a Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) scientist indicate that CWD has been transmitted to cynomolgus macaques (the non-human primate species most closely related to humans that may be used in research), through both the intracranial and oral routes of exposure.  Both infected brain and muscle tissues were found to transmit disease.  Health Canada’s Health Products and Food Branch (HPFB) was asked to consider the impact of these findings on the Branch’s current position on CWD in health products and foods.  Summary and Recommendation:  snip... Health Portfolio partners were recently made aware of initial findings from a research project led by a CFIA scientist that have demonstrated that cynomolgus macaques can be infected via intracranial exposure and oral gavage with CWD infected muscle.  These findings suggest that CWD, under specific experimental conditions, has the potential to cross the human species barrier, including by enteral feeding of CWD infected muscle.  
https://www.thetyee.ca/Documents/2017/06/24/Risk-Advisory-Opinion-CWD-2017.pdf
*** WDA 2016 NEW YORK ***  
We found that CWD adapts to a new host more readily than BSE and that human PrP was unexpectedly prone to misfolding by CWD prions.  In addition, we investigated the role of specific regions of the bovine, deer and human PrP protein in resistance to conversion by prions from another species.  
***We have concluded that the human protein has a region that confers unusual susceptibility to conversion by CWD prions.  
Student Presentations 
Session 2  
The species barriers and public health threat of CWD and BSE prions  
Ms. Kristen Davenport1, Dr. Davin Henderson1, Dr. Candace Mathiason1, Dr. Edward Hoover1 1Colorado State University  
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is spreading rapidly through cervid populations in the USA. 
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, mad cow disease) arose in the 1980s because cattle were fed recycled animal protein.  These and other prion diseases are caused by abnormal folding of the normal prion protein (PrP) into a disease causing form (PrPd), which is pathogenic to nervous system cells and can cause subsequent PrP to misfold. CWD spreads among cervids very efficiently, but it has not yet infected humans. On the other hand, BSE was spread only when cattle consumed infected bovine or ovine tissue, but did infect humans and other species.  The objective of this research is to understand the role of PrP structure in cross-species infection by CWD and BSE. To study the propensity of each species’ PrP to be induced to misfold by the presence of PrPd from verious species, we have used an in vitro system that permits detection of PrPd in real-time.  We measured the conversion efficiency of various combinations of PrPd seeds and PrP substrate combinations.  
We observed the cross-species behavior of CWD and BSE, in addition to feline-adapted CWD and BSE. 
We found that CWD adapts to a new host more readily than BSE and that human PrP was unexpectedly prone to misfolding by CWD prions. In addition, we investigated the role of specific regions of the bovine, deer and human PrP protein in resistance to conversion by prions from another species.  
***We have concluded that the human protein has a region that confers unusual susceptibility to conversion by CWD prions. 
CWD is unique among prion diseases in its rapid spread in natural populations. BSE prions are essentially unaltered upon passage to a new species, while CWD adapts to the new species. 
This adaptation has consequences for surveillance of humans exposed to CWD. 
Wildlife Disease Risk Communication Research Contributes to Wildlife Trust Administration Exploring perceptions about chronic wasting disease risks among wildlife and agriculture professionals and stakeholders
http://www.wda2016.org/uploads/5/8/6/1/58613359/wda_2016_conference_proceedings_low_res.pdf
CDC CWD 2018 TRANSMISSION
TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 12, 2017  
CDC Now Recommends Strongly consider having the deer or elk tested for CWD before you eat the meat
http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2017/09/cdc-now-recommends-strongly-consider.html
SATURDAY, JANUARY 27, 2018
CDC CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION UPDATE REPORT USA JANUARY 2018 
http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2018/01/cdc-chronic-wasting-disease-cwd-tse.html
Subject: CDC CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION UPDATE REPORT USA JANUARY 2018 CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION IS THE USA AND NORTH AMERICA'S MAD COW DISEASE.  THE USDA INC ET AL WORKED VERY HARD CONCEALING BSE TSE PRION IN CATTLE. they almost succeeded $$$ BUT CWD TSE PRION IN CERVIDS IS A DIFFERENT BEAST, THE COVER UP THERE, USDA INC COULD NOT CONTAIN. SPORADIC CJD IS 85%+ OF ALL HUMAN TSE PRION DISEASE. SPORADIC CJD HAS NOW BEEN LINKED TO TYPICAL AND ATYPICAL BSE, SCRAPIE, AND CWD. SPORADIC/SPONTANEOUS TSE HAS NEVER BEEN PROVEN. 
***Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.***
https://www.nature.com/articles/srep11573
CDC CWD TSE PRION UPDATE USA JANUARY 2018 
As of January 2018, CWD in free-ranging deer, elk and/or moose has been reported in at least 22 states in the continental United States, as well as two provinces in Canada. In addition, CWD has been reported in reindeer and moose in Norway, and a small number of imported cases have been reported in South Korea. The disease has also been found in farmed deer and elk. CWD was first identified in captive deer in the late 1960s in Colorado and in wild deer in 1981. By the 1990s, it had been reported in surrounding areas in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming. Since 2000, the area known to be affected by CWD in free-ranging animals has increased to at least 22 states, including states in the Midwest, Southwest, and limited areas on the East Coast.. It is possible that CWD may also occur in other states without strong animal surveillance systems, but that cases haven’t been detected yet. Once CWD is established in an area, the risk can remain for a long time in the environment. The affected areas are likely to continue to expand. Nationwide, the overall occurrence of CWD in free-ranging deer and elk is relatively low. However, in several locations where the disease is established, infection rates may exceed 10 percent (1 in 10), and localized infection rates of more than 25 percent (1 in 4) have been reported. The infection rates among some captive deer can be much higher, with a rate of 79% (nearly 4 in 5) reported from at least one captive herd. 
As of January 2018, there were 186 counties in 22 states with reported CWD in free-ranging cervids...  
Chronic Wasting Disease Among Free-Ranging Cervids by County, United States, January 2018  
snip....  
https://www.cdc.gov/prions/cwd/occurrence.html
*** 2017-2018 CWD TSE Prion UPDATE 
https://www.cdc.gov/prions/cwd/occurrence.html
*** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies.  
http://cdmrp.army.mil/prevfunded/nprp/NPRP_Summit_Final_Report.pdf
Transmission Studies Mule deer transmissions of CWD were by intracerebral inoculation and compared with natural cases {the following was written but with a single line marked through it ''first passage (by this route)}....TSS resulted in a more rapidly progressive clinical disease with repeated episodes of synocopy ending in coma. One control animal became affected, it is believed through contamination of inoculum (?saline). Further CWD transmissions were carried out by Dick Marsh into ferret, mink and squirrel monkey. Transmission occurred in ALL of these species with the shortest incubation period in the ferret. 
snip... 
https://web.archive.org/web/20090506002237/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11b/tab01.pdf
http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/Comments/03-025IFA/03-025IFA-2.pdf
Prion Infectivity in Fat of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease  
Brent Race#, Kimberly Meade-White#, Richard Race and Bruce Chesebro* + Author Affiliations 
In mice, prion infectivity was recently detected in fat. Since ruminant fat is consumed by humans and fed to animals, we determined infectivity titers in fat from two CWD-infected deer. Deer fat devoid of muscle contained low levels of CWD infectivity and might be a risk factor for prion infection of other species. 
http://jvi.asm.org/content/83/18/9608.full
Prions in Skeletal Muscles of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease  
Here bioassays in transgenic mice expressing cervid prion protein revealed the presence of infectious prions in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected deer, demonstrating that humans consuming or handling meat from CWD-infected deer are at risk to prion exposure. 
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/311/5764/1117.long
*** now, let’s see what the authors said about this casual link, personal communications years ago, and then the latest on the zoonotic potential from CWD to humans from the TOKYO PRION 2016 CONFERENCE. 
see where it is stated NO STRONG evidence. 
so, does this mean there IS casual evidence ???? 
“Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans” 
From: TSS (216-119-163-189.ipset45.wt.net) 
Subject: CWD aka MAD DEER/ELK TO HUMANS ??? 
Date: September 30, 2002 at 7:06 am PST 
From: "Belay, Ermias" To: Cc: "Race, Richard (NIH)" ; ; "Belay, Ermias" 
Sent: Monday, September 30, 2002 9:22 AM 
Subject: RE: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS 
Dear Sir/Madam, 
In the Archives of Neurology you quoted (the abstract of which was attached to your email), we did not say CWD in humans will present like variant CJD.. That assumption would be wrong. I encourage you to read the whole article and call me if you have questions or need more clarification (phone: 404-639-3091). Also, we do not claim that "no-one has ever been infected with prion disease from eating venison." Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans in the article you quoted or in any other forum is limited to the patients we investigated. Ermias Belay, M.D. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 
-----Original Message----- 
From: 
Sent: Sunday, September 29, 2002 10:15 AM 
To: rr26k@nih.govrrace@niaid.nih.govebb8@CDC.GOV 
Subject: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS 
Sunday, November 10, 2002 6:26 PM 
......snip........end..............TSS 
Thursday, April 03, 2008 
A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease 2008 1: Vet Res. 2008 Apr 3;39(4):41 A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease Sigurdson CJ. 
snip... 
*** twenty-seven CJD patients who regularly consumed venison were reported to the Surveillance Center***,
snip... 
full text ; 
http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2008/04/prion-disease-of-cervids-chronic.html

> However, to date, no CWD infections have been reported in people.  key word here is 'reported'. science has shown that CWD in humans will look like sporadic CJD. SO, how can one assume that CWD has not already transmitted to humans? they can't, and it's as simple as that. from all recorded science to date, CWD has already transmitted to humans, and it's being misdiagnosed as sporadic CJD. ...terry  
*** LOOKING FOR CWD IN HUMANS AS nvCJD or as an ATYPICAL CJD, LOOKING IN ALL THE WRONG PLACES $$$ *** 
*** These results would seem to suggest that CWD does indeed have zoonotic potential, at least as judged by the compatibility of CWD prions and their human PrPC target. 
***Furthermore, extrapolation from this simple in vitro assay suggests that if zoonotic CWD occurred, it would most likely effect those of the PRNP codon 129-MM genotype and that the PrPres type would be similar to that found in the most common subtype of sCJD (MM1).***  
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.4161/pri.28124?src=recsys
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.4161/pri.28124?needAccess=true
https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/20/1/13-0858_article
SEE; Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease Exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey 
Monday, May 23, 2011 
CDC Assesses Potential Human Exposure to Prion Diseases Travel Warning Public 
release date: 23-May-2011 Contact: Francesca Costanzo adajmedia@elsevier.com 215-239-3249 Elsevier Health Sciences 
CDC assesses potential human exposure to prion diseases Study results reported in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association Philadelphia, PA, May 23, 2011 – Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have examined the potential for human exposure to prion diseases, looking at hunting, venison consumption, and travel to areas in which prion diseases have been reported in animals. Three prion diseases in particular – bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or “Mad Cow Disease”), variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), and chronic wasting disease (CWD) – were specified in the investigation. 
The results of this investigation are published in the June issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association. “While prion diseases are rare, they are generally fatal for anyone who becomes infected. More than anything else, the results of this study support the need for continued surveillance of prion diseases,” commented lead investigator Joseph Y. Abrams, MPH, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC, Atlanta.”But it’s also important that people know the facts about these diseases, especially since this study shows that a good number of people have participated in activities that may expose them to infection-causing agents.” Although rare, human prion diseases such as CJD may be related to BSE. Prion (proteinaceous infectious particles) diseases are a group of rare brain diseases that affect humans and animals. When a person gets a prion disease, brain function is impaired. This causes memory and personality changes, dementia, and problems with movement. All of these worsen over time. These diseases are invariably fatal. Since these diseases may take years to manifest, knowing the extent of human exposure to possible prion diseases could become important in the event of an outbreak. CDC investigators evaluated the results of the 2006-2007 population survey conducted by the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet). 
This survey collects information on food consumption practices, health outcomes, and demographic characteristics of residents of the participating Emerging Infections Program sites. The survey was conducted in Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, Oregon, and Tennessee, as well as five counties in the San Francisco Bay area, seven counties in the Greater Denver area, and 34 counties in western and northeastern New York. Survey participants were asked about behaviors that could be associated with exposure to the agents causing BSE and CWD, including travel to the nine countries considered to be BSE-endemic (United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, France, Portugal, Switzerland, Italy, the Netherlands, Germany, Spain) and the cumulative length of stay in each of those countries. Respondents were asked if they ever had hunted for deer or elk, and if that hunting had taken place in areas considered to be CWD-endemic (northeastern Colorado, southeastern Wyoming or southwestern Nebraska). They were also asked if they had ever consumed venison, the frequency of consumption, and whether the meat came from the wild. The proportion of survey respondents who reported travel to at least one of the nine BSE endemic countries since 1980 was 29.5%. Travel to the United Kingdom was reported by 19.4% of respondents, higher than to any other BSE-endemic country. Among those who traveled, the median duration of travel to the United Kingdom (14 days) was longer than that of any other BSE-endemic country. Travelers to the UK were more likely to have spent at least 30 days in the country (24.9%) compared to travelers to any other BSE endemic country. The prevalence and extent of travel to the UK indicate that health concerns in the UK may also become issues for US residents. The proportion of survey respondents reporting having hunted for deer or elk was 18.5% and 1.2% reported having hunted for deer or elk in CWD-endemic areas. Venison consumption was reported by 67.4% of FoodNet respondents, and 88.6% of those reporting venison consumption had obtained all of their meat from the wild. 
These findings reinforce the importance of CWD surveillance and control programs for wild deer and elk to reduce human exposure to the CWD agent. Hunters in CWD-endemic areas are advised to take simple precautions such as: avoiding consuming meat from sickly deer or elk, avoiding consuming brain or spinal cord tissues, minimizing the handling of brain and spinal cord tissues, and wearing gloves when field-dressing carcasses. According to Abrams, “The 2006-2007 FoodNet population survey provides useful information should foodborne prion infection become an increasing public health concern in the future. The data presented describe the prevalence of important behaviors and their associations with demographic characteristics. Surveillance of BSE, CWD, and human prion diseases are critical aspects of addressing the burden of these diseases in animal populations and how that may relate to human health.” ### The article is “Travel history, hunting, and venison consumption related to prion disease exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet population survey” by Joseph Y. Abrams, MPH; Ryan A. Maddox, MPH; Alexis R Harvey, MPH; Lawrence B. Schonberger, MD; and Ermias D. Belay, MD. It appears in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Volume 111, Issue 6 (June 2011) published by Elsevier. In an accompanying podcast CDC’s Joseph Y. Abrams discusses travel, hunting, and eating venison in relation to prion diseases. It is available at 
http://adajournal.org/content/podcast. http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2011-05/ehs-cap051811.php
Thursday, May 26, 2011 
Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease Exposure, 2006-2007 
FoodNet Population Survey Journal of the American Dietetic Association Volume 111, Issue 6 , Pages 858-863, June 2011. Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease Exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey Joseph Y. Abrams, MPH, Ryan A. Maddox, MPH , Alexis R. Harvey, MPH , Lawrence B. Schonberger, MD , Ermias D. Belay, MD Accepted 15 November 2010. 
Abstract Full Text PDF References . 
Abstract 
The transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to human beings and the spread of chronic wasting disease (CWD) among cervids have prompted concerns about zoonotic transmission of prion diseases. Travel to the United Kingdom and other European countries, hunting for deer or elk, and venison consumption could result in the exposure of US residents to the agents that cause BSE and CWD. The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network 2006-2007 population survey was used to assess the prevalence of these behaviors among residents of 10 catchment areas across the United States. Of 17,372 survey respondents, 19.4% reported travel to the United Kingdom since 1980, and 29.5% reported travel to any of the nine European countries considered to be BSE-endemic since 1980. The proportion of respondents who had ever hunted deer or elk was 18.5%, and 1.2% had hunted deer or elk in a CWD–endemic area. More than two thirds (67.4%) reported having ever eaten deer or elk meat. Respondents who traveled spent more time in the United Kingdom (median 14 days) than in any other BSE-endemic country. Of the 11,635 respondents who had consumed venison, 59.8% ate venison at most one to two times during their year of highest consumption, and 88.6% had obtained all of their meat from the wild. The survey results were useful in determining the prevalence and frequency of behaviors that could be important factors for foodborne prion transmission. 
http://www.adajournal.org/article/S0002-8223(11)00278-1/abstract
PLUS, THE CDC DID NOT PUT THIS WARNING OUT FOR THE WELL BEING OF THE DEER AND ELK ; 
Thursday, May 26, 2011 
Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease Exposure, 2006-2007 
FoodNet Population Survey Journal of the American Dietetic Association Volume 111, Issue 6 , Pages 858-863, June 2011. 
http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/05/travel-history-hunting-and-venison.html
NOR IS THE FDA recalling this CWD positive elk meat for the well being of the dead elk ; Wednesday, March 18, 2009 Noah's Ark Holding, LLC, Dawson, MN 
RECALL Elk products contain meat derived from an elk confirmed to have CWD NV, CA, TX, CO, NY, UT, FL, OK 
RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: FOODS CLASS II 
http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/03/noahs-ark-holding-llc-dawson-mn-recall.html

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies
BSE INQUIRY CJD9/10022 October 1994 Mr R.N. Elmhirst Chairman British Deer Farmers Association Holly Lodge Spencers Lane  BerksWell Coventry CV7 7BZ 
Dear Mr Elmhirst, CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE (CJD) SURVEILLANCE UNIT REPORT Thank you for your recent letter concerning the publication of the third annual report from the CJD Surveillance Unit. 
I am sorry that you are dissatisfied with the way in which this report was published. 
The Surveillance Unit is a completely independant outside body and the Department of Health is committed to publishing their reports as soon as they become available. 
In the circumstances it is not the practice to circulate the report for comment since the findings of the report would not be amended.. In future we can ensure that the British Deer Farmers Association receives a copy of the report in advance of publication. 
The Chief Medical Officer has undertaken to keep the public fully informed of the results of any research in respect of CJD. This report was entirely the work of the unit and was produced completely independantly of the the Department. 
The statistical results reqarding the consumption of venison was put into perspective in the body of the report and was not mentioned at all in the press release. Media attention regarding this report was low key but gave a realistic presentation of the statistical findings of the Unit. 
This approach to publication was successful in that consumption of venison was highlighted only once by the media ie. in the News at one television proqramme. 
I believe that a further statement about the report, or indeed statistical links between CJD and consumption of venison, would increase, and quite possibly give damaging credence, to the whole issue. 
From the low key media reports of which I am aware it seems unlikely that venison consumption will suffer adversely, if at all. 
http://web.archive.org/web/20030511010117/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1994/10/00003001.pdf
*** The association between venison eating and risk of CJD shows similar pattern, with regular venison eating associated with a 9 FOLD INCREASE IN RISK OF CJD (p = 0.04). *** 
*** The association between venison eating and risk of CJD shows similar pattern, with regular venison eating associated with a 9 FOLD INCREASE IN RISK OF CJD (p = 0.04). *** 
*** The association between venison eating and risk of CJD shows similar pattern, with regular venison eating associated with a 9 FOLD INCREASE IN RISK OF CJD (p = 0.04). *** 
There is some evidence that risk of CJD INCREASES WITH INCREASING FREQUENCY OF LAMB EATING (p = 0.02). The evidence for such an association between beef eating and CJD is weaker (p = 0.14). When only controls for whom a relative was interviewed are included, this evidence becomes a little STRONGER (p = 0.08). 
snip... 
It was found that when veal was included in the model with another exposure, the association between veal and CJD remained statistically significant (p = < 0.05 for all exposures), while the other exposures ceased to be statistically significant (p = > 0.05). 
snip... 
In conclusion, an analysis of dietary histories revealed statistical associations between various meats/animal products and INCREASED RISK OF CJD. 
When some account was taken of possible confounding, the association between VEAL EATING AND RISK OF CJD EMERGED AS THE STRONGEST OF THESE ASSOCIATIONS STATISTICALLY. ... 
snip... 
In the study in the USA, a range of foodstuffs were associated with an increased risk of CJD, including liver consumption which was associated with an apparent SIX-FOLD INCREASE IN THE RISK OF CJD. 
By comparing the data from 3 studies in relation to this particular dietary factor, the risk of liver consumption became non-significant with an odds ratio of 1.2 (PERSONAL COMMUNICATION, PROFESSOR A. HOFMAN. ERASMUS UNIVERSITY, ROTTERDAM). (???...TSS) 
snip...
see full report ;
the tse prion aka mad cow type disease is not your normal pathogen. 
The TSE prion disease survives ashing to 600 degrees celsius, that’s around 1112 degrees farenheit. 
you cannot cook the TSE prion disease out of meat. 
you can take the ash and mix it with saline and inject that ash into a mouse, and the mouse will go down with TSE. 
Prion Infected Meat-and-Bone Meal Is Still Infectious after Biodiesel Production as well. 
the TSE prion agent also survives Simulated Wastewater Treatment Processes. 
IN fact, you should also know that the TSE Prion agent will survive in the environment for years, if not decades. 
you can bury it and it will not go away. 
The TSE agent is capable of infected your water table i.e. Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area. 
it’s not your ordinary pathogen you can just cook it out and be done with. 
***> that’s what’s so worrisome about Iatrogenic mode of transmission, a simple autoclave will not kill this TSE prion agent.
1: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1994 Jun;57(6):757-8 
***> Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease to a chimpanzee by electrodes contaminated during neurosurgery. 
Gibbs CJ Jr, Asher DM, Kobrine A, Amyx HL, Sulima MP, Gajdusek DC. 
Laboratory of Central Nervous System Studies, National Institute of 
Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 
Bethesda, MD 20892. 
Stereotactic multicontact electrodes used to probe the cerebral cortex of a middle aged woman with progressive dementia were previously implicated in the accidental transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) to two younger patients. The diagnoses of CJD have been confirmed for all three cases. More than two years after their last use in humans, after three cleanings and repeated sterilisation in ethanol and formaldehyde vapour, the electrodes were implanted in the cortex of a chimpanzee. Eighteen months later the animal became ill with CJD. This finding serves to re-emphasise the potential danger posed by reuse of instruments contaminated with the agents of spongiform encephalopathies, even after scrupulous attempts to clean them. 
PMID: 8006664 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
New Outbreak of TSE Prion in NEW LIVESTOCK SPECIES
Mad Camel Disease
***> IMPORTS AND EXPORTS <***
***SEE MASSIVE AMOUNTS OF BANNED ANIMAL PROTEIN AKA MAD COW FEED IN COMMERCE USA DECADES AFTER POST BAN ***
TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 4, 2018 
USA CJD, BSE, SCRAPIE, CWD, TSE PRION END OF YEAR REPORTS September 4, 2018
prepare for the storm...
Cervid to human prion transmission 5R01NS088604-04 Update
WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 26, 2018 
JAVMA In Short Update USDA announces detection of atypical BSE

WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 17, 2018 
PRICE OF TSE PRION POKER GOES UP spectrum of human prion diseases may extend the current field and may notably include spinal cord diseases 
SATURDAY, OCTOBER 06, 2018
Evaluation of iatrogenic risk of CJD transmission associated with corneal transplantation
SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 22, 2018 
Emerging Diseases, Infection Control & California Dental Practice Act
THURSDAY, OCTOBER 04, 2018 
Case Western Reserve researchers to examine skin prions in fatal neurodegenerative disease $2.9 million NIH grant focuses on transmission and diagnostic testing
WEDNESDAY, JULY 04, 2018
CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE: GUIDELINES FOR SOCIAL WORKERS IN ENGLAND June 2018
MONDAY, JUNE 18, 2018
Ecuador Six Case series of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a third-level hospital in Quito
WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 26, 2018 
A new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the UK 1995 revisited 2018 a review of science
CJD QUESTIONNAIRE
Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

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